Saturday, November 17, 2018

2018 London International Guqin Conference Records

Saturday 25th August, 2018 I attended the London International Guqin Festival Conference at Khalili Lecture Theatre, SAOS

Here is my record of the conference. (still not done yet, will try adding more photos and notes)
--------------------
Session 1: Organology, Social and Cross-cultural Meaning
Chair: Luca Pisano

10:00  A Silk-Stringed Qin and Its Three Western Sinologists: Robert van Gulick 高羅佩, Laurence Picken 畢鏗(音坑) and Stephen Jones 忠思弟, presented by Cheng Yu (SOAS, University of London)

 

10:30 Yangzhou as a Thriving Center of Guqin Societies And Manufacturing - Jiang He (Masters student, Sichuan Conservatory of Music)




 11:00 Tea break and networking

11:30 The Qianlong 乾隆 Emperor's Guqin: Craftmanship, Nostalgia and Virtue - Edward Luper (Chinese art specialist at Bonhams auction house)



"of pearl-string (lianzhu) type, the tapering body modelled with a gently convex upper surface with cusped edges along the neck and waist, the underside with two peg guards on one end, supporting the musical instrument with seven celadon jade tuning pegs and two circular celadon jade goose feet, the front inlaid vertically with thirteen golden studs (hui), the ridge (yue mountain) and brow (drew receptacle) set with a pale celadon jade panel, the tail similarly framed with celadon jade, the reverse with four apertures, a rectangular peg pool near the head framing the tuning pegs, a shapely ruyi-shaped dragon pool and phoenix pond, interrupted by an oval sound hole and the pair of jade goose feet, one incised with cranes and ruyi motifs, the other with petal lappets and circular markings, each stringing three or four of the seven silk chords, the front of the instrument decorated with traces of cranes and clouds against the lacquered surface, the evenly lacquered exterior detailed overall with circular markings simulating ancient 'prunus crackles' (meihua duan) and accentuated with 'serpent belly crackles' (shefu duan), finely inscribed on the unlacquered wutong  interior with three main inscriptions visible through the apertures on the underside, an imperial poem eulogising the   qin  with a   yuzhi  mark in clerical script and a faint cinnabar seal mark seen through the dragon pool, the sound hole revealing a further inscription in clerical script dated to the autumn of the tenth year of the Qianlong period (1745), stating that the qin was made in Butong shuwu ['Replenished Wutong Library'] according to Qinding lulu Zhengyi    [Imperial musical encyclopedia]  followed by a cinnabar seal mark, possibly reading bide  (‘virtuous [as jade]’), all above the name of the   qin   in seal script reading Xiangjiang qiubi    (‘Clear Autumn Skies above the Xiang River’) visible through the phoenix pond, the tuning pegs attached with tassels
101 公分,39 3/4 英寸"





不解攫醳解琴意,七弦掛壁何不可?
暉十有三丁晨星,導和理性圖書左。
湘江夜月來水仙,牕暎飄蕭綠陰鎻。
何須鳴玉覓金儒,愛渠亦復周旋我。






- Founded in 1680 by Kangxi
- Responsible for making, repair and inventorying of all objects for the Imperial household
- Massive system of manufacturing logistical supply and record keeping served
  the whims and needs of the emperor alone
- Led by princes and bondservants, orders conveyed by Eunuchs 
- Emergence of "technocrat" class



考《清宮內務府造辦處檔案總匯》有關此四琴製做事項,始於乾隆十年末,先命莊親王、汪尤敦、張若靄等商酌,統理製琴事務。仿古樣製辦請旨:琴腹寫詩,遴選良工,呈覽琴胎,何處取玉製岳山、琴軫等配件,後交蘇州織造圖拉,1 依畫樣花紋顏色等做漆。此等均一一記載,鉅細無遺,前後共計費時約十個月,四琴方成

圖拉,乾隆五至十六年間(1740-51年)管理蘇州織造,乾隆十七年(1752年)卒。在他任職期間,所有蘇作織繡品、玉作、漆作等均由他交回造辦處。當時織造、鹽政及監督均由宮廷委派,他們多為皇帝身邊之人,甚知皇帝的品味。 

[乾隆十年] 十二月初二日。鍍金作。郎中色勒來說為乾隆十年十一月十五日汪尤敦、張若靄奉旨所製四琴著莊親王遴選良工會同造辦處悉心斟酌,其金徽、玉軫等件俱仿古樣製辦,琴腹中寫詩之處著汪尤敦、張若靄商酌辦理,統於製,就細胎時呈樣請旨。欽此。…… 

十二月初二日:私庫白世秀七品首領薩木哈,將現做琴四張持進交太監呈覽。奉旨,琴上龍池不必開,將御題刻在龍池的迎手上,琴名刻在鳳池的迎手上,其字或寫、或刻,著汪尤敦、張若靄酌量帖樣呈覽。准時罩金漆,再需作古,上等做法,爾等仔細、好生莊重成造。欽此。

於本月二十二日太監胡世傑傳旨,要現做活記呈覽。欽此。 於本日私庫白世秀將做得四琴持進交太監胡世傑呈覽。奉旨,此琴上應嵌之玉岳山、龍尾、枕足等處,將交莊親王舊琴內有嵌玉的,將玉拆來嵌用。如無,有再庫內查玉成做。庫內再無玉,著買玉做。欽此。 

於本月二十三日七品首領薩木哈將莊親王送來白玉枕足十副持進交太監胡世傑呈覽。奉旨,將此玉枕足內選四副用,其餘六副造辦處收貯。再此琴上應用龍吟、蛟尾、成路、岳山之處做樣交南邊照樣做白玉的送來。欽此

於十一年正月初八日七品首領薩木哈來說:奉莊親王諭,現做四琴上岳山、成路(承露)、蛟尾(焦尾)、龍音(齦)、下龍音(齦)、托尾、下托尾俱係用玉成做,若用木做樣交南邊恐其性軟,抽小彼處照木樣成做。未免於琴上不合尺寸,著用或凍石、或滑石做樣,送去其石性縱軟,再不至抽小。彼處照樣做來方能合式。記此。

乾隆十一年二月初一日。蘇州。七品首領薩木哈來說太監胡世傑傳旨:現做琴四張著交南邊漆做。欽此。於本月初六日七品首領薩木哈來說太監胡世傑交按古琴斷紋顏色仿畫琴樣四張,傳旨:著交南邊照此畫樣花紋、顏色一樣漆做。欽此。

於本年九月初五日將蘇州織造圖拉做得送到漆琴四張隨匣、錦套持進交太監胡世傑呈進訖。
於十一年十月二十日司庫白世秀將圖拉做得漆琴四張持進交太監胡世傑呈進訖。


《明报》引述香港苏富比中国艺术品资深专家李佳表示,乾隆时期的宫廷工艺制作技术,是中国工艺美术的巅峰时期,因乾隆不但非常热爱工艺美术作品,也是一个非常念旧的人,于其诗集作品中,记有他年少时在中南海中的一组建筑,其中一个小院落内的「补桐书屋」,这是乾隆当时读书的地方;屋前原有两株老桐树,其中一株因病枯死,其后补种一株,也是此屋名「补桐」的由来。书屋门前所有梧桐老树,于乾隆九年(1744年)全告枯死,当时乾隆已封帝,便下令「内务府」造办处以此梧桐树木材制成四张古琴,各赐其名并题诗。四张古琴于乾隆十一年秋季制成后,一直存放在补桐书屋内,不曾弹奏。
李佳指出,古琴于大拍卖会中出现,多年来寥寥可数,清代制的古琴更少之又少;从乾隆琴中的题诗及几首其他有关补桐的诗词,她估计或也包含忆祖父康熙的情感,让此琴有非比寻常的意义和价值。再者,有御题之琴,在清代文献记载中约有十来张,且多为唐宋制成古琴,大部分属博物馆珍藏,但乾隆亲令御制之琴便仅有此四张,几经世代交替,辗转流传约270年,能重现人间,只有这张「湘江秋碧」琴,其珍贵程度可想而知。
补桐书屋为北京中南海中的一组建筑,是太湖石上的一个小院落,院内南屋名补桐书屋,北屋名随安室。雍正年间,身为太子的乾隆就在这里读书。(https://www.chinatimes.com/cn/realtimenews/20161006005342-260409)
傳世之乾隆御器,無不為精心妙作,屢見巧創奇想,然儘管珍器滿堂,唯甚少可與此琴媲美。乾隆生性慕古好雅,如斯珍愛此梧桐漆木琴,題詩銘刻,其心性與嚮往可見一斑。
二十世紀日本古董巨商山中定次郎,曾從滿清親王貴族手上購得海量重器珍品,本琴為其中之一;二戰時美國政府將其財產充公拍賣,在最後、即第三場拍賣會上,年輕西藏先鋒探險家 F. Bailey Vanderhoef Jr. 相中此琴,儘管當時署年與資料皆語焉不詳,他喜以為宋代古琴,並在1976年借展於聖塔芭芭拉藝術博物館一場漆器展,時展覽圖錄誤以為琴上紀年乃補修記錄。
近年研究揭示,本琴實為一組四張乾隆十一年(1746年)完成的御製古琴之一;原木取自一株古梧桐樹,乾隆仍為皇子時,於梧桐所在的庭院讀書受教,甚愛此樹。關於本琴,清宮檔案記載甚繁,詳述當中選材、選匠、樣式與製作工序,讀者如歷在目。乾隆為四張琴各製一首御題詩,鐫刻其上;此後連續十月,宮人源源向乾隆禀報此琴的製作進度,直至完成後呈送至補桐書屋方止。凡此皆可見乾隆對本琴的珍視。
http://www.sothebys.com/zh/auctions/ecatalogue/lot.3605.html/2016/important-chinese-art-hk0675

12:00 Robert van Gulik and the Qin Today - Marie-Anne Souloumiac-van Gulic (creative entrepreneur and founder of DEE Projects 狄公)



You can watch the full film of Robert van Gulik's story at:
https://vimeo.com/150994641
password:vangulik2016

13:00 Lunch
--------------------
Session 2: Aesthetics and Iconography
Chair: Edward Luper

14:00 Preliminary Remarks on Qin Iconography from Chen Yang's 陳暘 Treatise on Music Iconography (Yuetulun 樂圖論) - Luca Pisano (Associate Professor of Chinese Language and Literature, Kore University of Enna, Italy)

14:30 A Philosopher's Qin Sound - Peiyou Chang (New York Qin Society)

15:00 Tea break and networking

15:30 The "View of Nature" in the Musical Aesthetics of the Guqin in Terms of Comparing the 24 Epithets of Guqin Music (二十四琴況, [谿山琴況] ) and 24 Epithets of Poems ([二十四詩品]) - Mei-Yen Lee (Professor, Department of Chinese Language and Literature, National Pingtung University, Taiwan)

16:00 Living Off the Landscape - the Spatial Aesthetics of the Guqin in Literature - Yuhan Wang (Masters student, National Taiwan University)

16:30 Representations of the Guqin in China Today: From Recurrent Nostalgia, Cultural Etiquette to Revival MovementsOmid Christoph Burgin (Lecturer and Researcher at the UNESCO Chair on Transcultural Music Studies, Department of Musicology, University of Music FRANZ LISZT Weimar & Friedrich Schiller University, Jena)

He mentioned this book:
https://www.amazon.com/Music-China-Today-Bernhard-Hanneken/dp/386135652X

17:00 Finish (followed by Evening Concert at 19:00)

--------------------
Sunday 26th August

Session 3: Notation and Education
Chair : Omid Christoph Burgin

9:00 Some Remarks about the Past, Present and Future of a Special Notation System for the Guqin - Dorothee Schaab-Hanke (Department of History, University of Bamberg)

9:30 Developing Standards of the Guqin: Towards a Critcal Approach Pedagogy of the Guqin, Musicology, and its Culture - Juni Yeung (Toronto Guqin Society)

10:00 Short tea break and networking

10:15 Qin Rhythms with analysis of stroke patterns and first lyric setting for Guangling San in over a thousand years - Marnix Wells (Independent Researcher; LYQS)

10:45 From Habitual Imitation to Systematic Training- An Idea for the Construction of a Guqin Teaching System - Zeng He (Lecturer in Chinese music and guqin performance, Sichuan Conservatory of Music)

11:15 Short tea break and networking

12:00 Round table discussion: The future of the Guqin
Chair : Hwee San Tan and Cheng Yu
All presenters, and guqin masters Li Xiangting, Zeng Chengwei and Zeng He.

13:00 Lunch (followed by Grand Yaji at 14:00 and Evening Concert at 19:30)