Thursday, April 5, 2018

Music and the Moral Psyche in Early Chinese Thought



Saturday, March 31, 2018 at Bard College 9:30 am - 4:30 pm, I attended the Conference - Harmony And Power: The Role of Music in the Cultivation of the Literati in Ancient China

The First talk in the morning section was presented by Prof. Erica Brindley Penn State (Asian Studies, History, Philosophy)
Comments: Susan Blake, Bard College (Philosophy)

Her talk was:
Beautifying the Emotions: Music and the Moral Psyche in Early Chinese Thought

Prof. Brindly thinks that 儒 Confucius is a kind of like Rabbi. (Rabbi: a Jewish scholar or teacher, especially one who studies or teaches Jewish law.)... And Confucius believed that music was the best tool for becoming the idealized type of person, Junzi, the noble person. Junzi cultivate themselves with music... Confucius has set the path for intellectual culture today.

What music offers human beings? a moral education program for individual...



Prof. Brindly translates the word 知音(Zhi Yin, knowing sound) as "bosom buddy" -- Music was a way to bond deeply with or achieve communion with another being who would become a friend...

Please listen Prof. Brindley's talk with Prof. Susan Blake's comments and one question from Prof. François Picard towards the end at 49'47". (This recording is for personal study use only, please do not share. Thanks)







1993年郭店楚墓發現的竹簡裡有一篇[性自命出] 原文如下:

凡人雖有性,心亡奠志,待物而後作,待悅而後行,待習而後奠。喜怒哀悲之氣,性也。及其見於外,則物取之也。性自命出,命自天降。道始於情,情生於性。始者近情,終者近義。(Human nature comes from Heaven's command - Human nature emerges from Heavenly Decree; Heavenly Decree is sent down from Heaven... Dao is the path we should following...we have to learn to be in touch with the Dao, what was the right thing to do... Dao beginning with Raw Emotions and raw emotion is coming from human nature. He who is beginning on this dao is near to the raw emotion, and he who is starting his ending on this dao is near Yi -correctness... Music is the tool to train the emotions...  25'30" in the video ) 知情者能出之,知義者能內(入)之。
  好惡,性也。所好所惡,物也。善不善性也,所善所不善,勢也。凡性為主,物取之也。金石之有聲,弗扣 不鳴,人之雖有性,心弗取不出。凡心有志也,無與不可, 性不可獨行,猶口之不可獨言也。
  牛生而長,雁生而伸,其性使然, 人而學或使之也。凡物無不異也者,剛之柱也,剛取之也。柔之約[也],柔取之也。四海之內,其性一也。其用心各異,教使然也。
  凡性,或動之,或逆之,或交之,或厲之,或出之,或養之,或長之。凡動性者,物也;逆性者,悅也;交性者,故也;厲性者,義也;出性者,勢也;養性者,習也;長性者,道也。
  凡見者之謂物,快於己者之謂悅,物之勢者之謂勢,有為也之謂故。義也者,群善之蕝也。習也者,有以習其性也。
  道者,群物之道。凡道,心術為主。道四術,唯人道為可道也。其三術者,道之而已。
  《詩》、《書》、《禮》、《樂》,其始出皆生於人。 《詩》,有為為之也;《書》,有為言之也;《禮》、《樂》,有為舉之也。
  聖人比其類而論會之,觀其先後,而逆訓之,體其義而節度之,理其情而出入之,然後復以教。教,所以生德於中者也。
  禮作於情,或興之也,當事因方而製之。其先後之舍(序)則義道也。或舍(序)為之節則也。
  致容貌,所以度節也。君子美其情, 貴其義,善其節,好其容,樂其道,悅其教,是以敬焉。拜,所以為?與,其諛度也。幣帛,所以為信與證也,其詞義道也。
  笑,禮之淺澤也。樂,禮之深澤也。凡聲,其出於情也信,然後其入撥人之心也厚。聞笑聲,則鮮如也斯喜。聞歌謠,則陶如也斯奮。聽琴瑟之聲,則悸如也斯嘆觀《賚》、《武》,則齊如也斯作。觀《韶》、《夏》,則勉如也斯儉。詠思而動心,==如也,其居次也舊(久),其反善復始也慎(32'30" in the video) 其出入也順,司(始)其德也。鄭衛之樂,則非其聽而從之也。凡古樂龍(動)心,益(淫)樂龍(動)指(嗜),皆教其人者也。 《賚》、《武》樂取,《韶》、《夏》樂情。
  凡至樂必悲,哭亦悲,皆至其情也。哀、樂,其性情相近也,是故其心不遠。哭之動心也,浸殺,其央戀戀如也,戚然以終。樂之動心也,濬深鬰陶,其央則流如也悲,悠然以思。
  凡憂,思而後悲;凡樂,思而後忻。凡思之用,心為甚。嘆,思之方也,其聲變則 其心變,其心變則其聲亦然。吟遊(流)哀也,噪遊(流)樂也,啾遊(流)聲[也],嘔遊(流)心也。
  喜斯陶,陶斯奮,奮斯詠,詠斯猶,猶斯作。作,喜之終也。慍斯憂,憂斯戚,戚斯嘆,嘆斯闢,闢斯通。通,慍之終也。
  凡學者隸[求]其心為難。從其所為,近得之矣,不如以樂之速也。唯[雖]能其事,不能其心,不貴。求其心有為也,弗得之矣。人之不能以為(偽)也,可知也。其過十舉,其心必在焉,察其見者,情安失哉?察,義之方也。義,敬之方也。敬,物之節也。篤,仁之方也。仁,性之方也。性或生之。忠,信之方也。信,情之方也。情出於性。
  愛類七,唯性愛為近仁。智類五,唯義道為近忠。惡類三,唯惡不仁為近義。所為道者四,唯人道為可道也。凡用心之躁者,思為甚。用智之疾者,患為甚。用情之至者,哀樂為甚。用身之弁者,悅為甚。用力之盡者,利為甚。目之好色,耳之樂聲,鬰陶之氣也,人不難為之死。
  有其為人之節節如也,不有夫柬柬之心則採。有其為人之柬柬如也,不有夫恆怡之志則縵。人之巧言利詞者,不有夫詘詘之心則流。人之悅然可與和安者,不有夫奮作之情則侮。有其為人之快如也,弗牧不可。有其為人之淵如也,弗輔不足。凡人偽為可惡也。偽斯吝矣,吝斯慮矣,慮斯莫與之結矣。慎,仁之方也。然而其過不惡。速,謀之方也,有過則咎。人不慎斯有過,信矣。
  凡人情為可悅也。苟以其情,唯(雖)過不惡;不以其情,唯(雖)難不貴。苟有其情,唯(雖)未之為,斯人信之矣。
  未言而信,有美情者也。未教而民恆,性善者也。未賞而民勸,含福者也。未型(刑)而民畏,有心畏者也。賤而民貴之,有德者也。貧而民聚焉,有道者也。
  獨處而樂,有內(入)禮者也。惡之而不可非者,達於義者也。非之而不可惡者,篤於仁者也。
  行之不過,知道者也。聞道反上,上交者也。聞道反下,下交者也。聞道反己,修身者也。上交近事君,下交得眾近從政,修身近至仁。
  同方而交,以道者也。不同方而 交, 以 ?者[也]。同悅而交,以德者也。不同悅而交,以猷者也。門內之治,欲其逸也。門外之治,欲其製也。
  凡悅人勿吝也,身必從之,言及則明舉之而毋偽。凡交毋央,必使有末。凡於徵毋畏,毋獨言。獨處則習父兄之所樂。苟毋大害,少枉內(入)之可也,已則勿複言也。

  凡憂患之事欲任,樂事欲後。身欲靜而毋==,慮欲淵而毋拔,行欲勇而必至,貌欲壯而毋拔,[心]欲柔齊而泊,喜欲智而亡末,樂欲懌而有志,憂欲儉而毋惛(悶),怒欲盈而毋希,進欲遜而毋巧,退欲循而毋輕,欲皆度而毋偽。君子執志必有夫光光之心,出言必有夫柬柬之信,賓客之禮必有夫齊齊之容,祭祀之禮必有夫齊齊之敬,居喪必有夫戀戀之哀。君子身以為主心。

Starting at 49'47" Prof. François Picard asked two questions. The first one is about the relationship between music and words, but this part Prof. Brindley did not answer. The 2nd question is about Li 禮, that Li is not about harmony but to distinguish heaven and living being.  My understanding is that Prof. Brindley thinks that Li is to distinguish everything and Yue 樂 (music) is to harmonize everything as Xunzi 荀子 say: 故樂者審一以定和者也,比物以飾節者也,合奏以成文者也;足以率一道,足以治萬變。...樂合同,禮別異,禮樂之統,管乎人心矣。 

Wednesday, April 4, 2018

Bell Chimes from the Chinese Bronze Age



Saturday, March 31, 2018 at Bard College 9:30 am - 4:30 pm, I attended the Conference - Harmony And Power: The Role of Music in the Cultivation of the Literati in Ancient China

The Second talk in the morning section was presented by Prof. Lothar Von Falkenhausen from University of California, Los Angeles (Art History, Archeology)
Comments: Patricia Karetzky, Bard College (Art History)

His talk was:
Music to the Ears of Confucius: Bell Chimes from the Chinese Bronze Age

I did not take many photos of his slides, therefore I used some information I found on-line to help my study. 

編鐘 Bian Zhong (A set of bronze bells. Zhong means bells)

Three major bell types:

甬鐘 Yong Zhong 各部位名稱 (names of each parts on the Yong Zhong) (棒狀掛頭, 橋型鐘口)

紐鐘 Niu Zhong (環狀掛頭, 橋型鐘口)

鎛鐘 Bo Bell (平口)

鐘的形式有「鐘」、「鎛」之分。鐘又可分為「甬鐘」及「鈕鐘」二型,是以其懸掛部位有甬、鈕之異來區分。鎛的形制與鐘相近,但不像鐘口呈弧狀,而是作平口,鈕部多附有蟠曲堆垛的獸形紋飾,鎛一般為特懸,即單懸,且體形大於鐘


The difference between Yong bell and Niu bell is in the hanging mechanism. The Niu bell has a vertical suspension device while Yong bell has a cylindrical suspension device. The Bo bell is usually used as a single bell with a flat bottom opening, not like Yong and Niu bells which have a curved bottom opening. The Bo bell is much larger than the Yong bell and Niu bell. (Picture : the one in the middle on the ground)

Each bell can create two tones, according to Prof. Falkenhausen, they were design specifically to create two tones. The caster knew ahead of time which two tones they would make, before they made them. This formula for knowing which specific size and shape to cast a bell to achieve two specific tones has been lost. 

For Prof. Falkenhausen's talk, please listen from this video. (This sound recording is for private study use only, please do not share. Thank you.)




I recommend a fantastic catalog about the set of bronze bells at tomb of Marquis Yi of Zheng: 
Music in the Age of Confucius, 
published by the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. in the year 2000.

About Rhapsody, Fu 賦


Layout of Prof Yang Ye's talk. 
Saturday, March 31, 2018 at Bard College 9:30 am - 4:30 pm, I attended the Conference - Harmony And Power: The Role of Music in the Cultivation of the Literati in Ancient China

The last talk in the morning section was presented by Prof. Ye Yang from University of California, Riverside (Comparative Literature)

His talk was:
From Musical Instruments to Human Voice:
The Representation of Music in the Rhapsody
Comments by Ying Li-Hua, from Bard College (Art History)


Prof. Yang believes that Fu originally started in the south, not in the Yellow River valley, and was from the land of 屈原 Qu yuan. He also assumes that Fu has a lot to do with shamanism in the beginning.

Prof. Yang finished his talk by using a quote from a conversation between Huan Wen and Meng Jia : 絲不如竹, 竹不如肉  Silk (string instrument) is not as good as bamboo (wind instrument); Bamboo is not as good as human flesh (human voice) -- gradually get closer to nature.

Prof. Ying Li-hua commented that "Fu" (Rhapsody) is meant to celebrate and glorify, exaggerated and over the top, but has the core of a poem.

She questioned the English translation of the word "Xiao 嘯", Whistling. According to Prof. Yang, Xiao was not actually whistling, it is a kind of Daoist practice. She hopes Prof. Yang can show us what the Xiao sounds like. But Prof Yang did not try to do what "Xiao" sounds like.

Prof. Yang answered one audience question about whether Rhapsody is similar to todays Rap music. He says that it is impossible today to write Rhapsody... please listen from the video at the 48-minute.


Sound recording of Prof. Yang's talk: (please do not share, as this video is for personal use only.)



鋪采摛文
出於南北朝劉勰《文心雕龍·詮賦》:“《詩》有六義,其二曰賦。賦者,鋪也。鋪采摛文,體物寫志也。”體物寫志,指賦的內容,寫賦要有所依托,不能無病呻吟,要體現作者自身的思想感情志向,鋪采擒文,指賦的形貌,鋪陳文采。運用大量華麗的語句,張揚文采,從不同的方面描寫事物,不厭其詳,不厭其細。

因為聽了此場演講, 本來就對賦並不孰悉, 如今更想弄個清楚

網上查到
臺靜農先生 的[中國文學史]中說到"賦":
賦 誦也 這種文體是誦讀而不是歌唱
漢書 藝文志: 不歌 而誦謂之賦
聲音拉長為歌 (書: 歌永言)
聲音有頓挫為賦 (周禮 大司樂: 以聲節之曰誦)
誦其言謂之詩, 詠其言謂之歌 (漢書藝文志)
賦的文體是朗誦的 內容則是鋪陳政教善惡的
漢 楊雄認為: 詩人之賦麗以則 辭人之賦麗以淫 (則有criterion的意思, 淫有over the top 的意思)
楊雄認為賦並沒有勸戒的功能, 而是類似排優 (藝伎 skillful actor)

I recommend a good book worth to read:
R.H. Van Gulik 高羅佩 wrote:

Hsi K'ang and his Poetical Essay on the Lute (嵇康 琴賦)

with English translation 

Tuesday, April 3, 2018

A little note about Prof. François Picard's talk

Saturday, March 31, 2018 at Bard College 9:30 am - 4:30 pm, I attended the Conference - Harmony And Power: The Role of Music in the Cultivation of the Literati in Ancient China

The first talk in the afternoon was presented by Prof. François Picard, from Paris-Sorbonne University (Ethnomusicology)

His talk was:
The Role of Guqin as a Link between Ancient and Contemporary China.

Here is a short clip of his talk. (please do not share, this is only for self study)



Prof. François played several music recordings that are modern composed music which used Guqin as one of the instruments. His point is that modern Chinese composers are all influenced by western music and he thinks that the guqin is not being used to its essential quality, but as other Chinese musical instrument just to create some decorative sounds. And the guqin music have lost its antiquity and the antiquity is declining.

Monday, April 2, 2018

A Ming Dynasty Qin player - Yang Jijing 楊季靜



Saturday, March 31, 2018 at Bard College 9:30 am - 4:30 pm, I attended the Conference - Harmony And Power: The Role of Music in the Cultivation of the Literati in Ancient China

The last talk was presented by a qin friend, Mr. Yang Yuanzheng, from University of Hong Kong (Music).

His talk was:
An Artist and His Patrons:
Qin Player Yang Jijing and the Cultural Elite in Early 16th-Century Suzhou

I almost recorded all the talk with my sound recorder, unfortunately the chip was full before the last two talks. Therefore, I can only use some photos I took and something I found on-line to help me to recall the talk about the artist Yang Jijing 
(ca. 1477–after 1530).

Different from other talks, Yang Yuanzheng chose one specific qin player's case to study. This qin player is Yang Jijing. Yang Jijing was a professional qin player who knew many famous artists, such as Tang Yin, Wen Zhengming, and Zhu Yunming etc. Yang Jijing's life wasn't too smooth through the end. He failed to find a position in a government bureau. His qin life at the beginning seemed doing well, but later it has some money issues. Fortunately he knew many famous people, they appreciated his artistic talent and either painted him or collectively wrote praises, which are now still surviving and are collected in museums. Through those paintings and colophons, one can imagine who Yang Jijing was and what his life might have been like. 

明 祝允明 題楊季靜小像贊 卷 (台北故宮)
〈楊季靜小像〉,文伯仁作於1526年。楊季靜(1504以前-1530),蘇州著名的琴師,與祝允明、文徵明、唐寅等人友善,唐寅亦曾作〈南游圖卷〉與〈琴士圖卷〉圖其貌。祝允明約六十四歲作此贊,原應題〈琴士圖卷〉,後為人移至此。


 明 唐寅 琴士圖 (台北故宮) The Qin Player Scroll (Taipei Palace Museum)

此pdf 論文對琴士圖做了很詳細的繪畫內容, 裡面所呈現的器物等等之解說.



[琴士圖]上的提字可依稀了解楊季靜, 這位窮有一身琴藝, 並與當時許多傑出的文人雅士結交, 卻始終仕途抱負難以伸展的一位琴人.   楊元錚先生做了翻譯:


 translated by Yang Yuanzheng
In the ancient state of Lu, there was once someone by the name of Master Musician Shi Xiang, about whom nothing now could be discovered, were it not for the fact that Confucius himself once learnt to play the qin from him, so his name has resounded through history up to the present day. Casting an eye around the scholarly community of Suzhou, I see from the extent they praise [Yang] Jijing that his name will live on. The grand historian [Sima Qian] states: "Ordinary people of the highways and byways, if they don't attach themselves to the great and the good, how can they hope that memory of them will be preserved for posterity." I firmly believe in this.
Zhu Xing's colophon to The Qin Player Scroll (c.1521) - translated by Yang Yuanzheng


明 唐寅 《南游圖》 卷 (at Freer Sackler Gallary)

Traveling South

Painting: Traveling Toward a Bright Future




Translated by Yang Yuanzheng

Translated by Yang Yuanzheng
Zhiyin 知音 : boon companion 

On the river, springtime breezes blow the tender elms I clasp my zither and see you off trailing long robes If someone you encounter should appreciate your music Cut some reeds where you are and build yourself a hut
Xi Kang long ago performed the Melody of Guangling Quiet for a thousand years its tonalities are lost Today I have traveled to this place to see you off That we may look for its tablature in the handbook. 
- quote from Freer Sackler gallary's website.

Wen Zhengming's colophon to A Picture of The Southern Journey
Translated by Yang Yuanzheng
Wen Zhengming's colophon translation from Freer Sackler gallary's website.
I knew the Old Man Who Guarded His Simplicity
Sincere and true, an upright gentleman of old;
His whole life spent with a seven-foot zither
In clear tones, he sketched the "Flowing Water."
Easy and serene never frivolous in substance
He quite knew the fingering for every sound;
He could have passed this on to several sons
But Ji it was whose heart alone matched well.
To him the ancient melodies were truly passed
His surplus skill expresses their innate mood;
But how shall his art alone be called refined?
He cultivates himself as his father did before.
In the past among those famous for the zither
There was once in Yue a master named Liu Hong;
But the Zither Liu whom we have here in Suzhou
Came in fact from this old father and his son.
With the passing of a scant few sixty years
The whole tradition now belongs to Master Ji;
Sorry that so few here understand his music
He packs his zither and sets off a thousand li.
Moling was a famous capital in ancient times
Go, go, surely you will find reception there;
Sonorously strum forth that unique music
Wash their ears entirely of cittern and guitar.


Qian Tongai's colophon translation
 from Freer Sackler gallary's website (line 1-4):
Jinling in the Third Month and spring is not yet ended
Eager to see the country you mount your figured saddle
Singing girls call for wine at the Willow Blossom Café
Ferry passengers thump the sterns at Peach Leaf Rapids
A noble melody that will not be extirpated on Zhongsan's [i e., Ji Kang's] death
The hui sounding nodes are played for the sake of [Zhong] Ziqi
Qian Tongai's (1475-1549) colophon to A Picture of the Southern Journey. 
-- (line 5-7) translated by Yang Yuanzheng

邀人撫琴
One of Yang Jijing's rich friends wants to hire Yang Jijing to play for him.



Yang Jijing's response.




所託吟賦諸詩,非是風過便無浪也,只因連日齒痛無好情趣,況不可打發,又非限緊不可緩者,故寧緩兩日,有興則書之,豈不美乎?絕無沉沒換污之憂。請少寬之。研石送去,幸為一造,只可作一池(池方圓不拘),於上不要做坡面,下亦不要插手,但用一朴為佳。草草奉報。不怪。十六日。允明拜手。季靜老兄。硯煩速倩人一制,使價來取。(祝允明致楊季靜)https://kknews.cc/culture/e9enbl4.html

Yang Yuanzheng's translation


質庵之號用否?示知。仆初四日欲往鄉間,其事可促成之,只好在明後日了之甚佳,或先交四物亦妙。草草!允明拜手。季靜老兄足下。(祝允明致楊季靜)
Should we use Zhi an's summary name or not? Please indicate. Your humble servant is, on the fourth day of the fifth month, hoping to visit his home in the countryside. So in order to make this business happen, it would be best for it to take place tomorrow or the next day, or first passing across the four objects would, perhaps, be imperative.  Written in extreme haste [Zhu] Yunming sends his worshipful regards. To kind brother [Yang] Jijing -- translated by Yang Yuanzheng


Yang Yuanzheng and Peiyou
photo was taken at the yaji, the evening before the conference.
(my white hairs reflecting pretty well... oh well...last time met Yuanzheng was 12 years ago in NYC at one of NYQS's yaji. And I was wearing the same jacket.)

Tuesday, February 13, 2018

風宣玄品 鼓琴訓論 Theory of instruction to the Qin Playing

風宣玄品  Ming Dynasty (1540) Qin Book .

鼓琴訓論 Theory of instruction to the Qin Playing

嘗謂「琴者,禁也」。禁邪歸正,以和人心。是故聖人之制,將以制身,育其情性,和其天倪,抑乎淫蕩,去乎奢侈,以抱吾道。此琴之所以為樂也。

凡鼓琴必擇淨室高堂,或升層樓之上,或於林石之間,或登山巔,或游水湄,值二氣高明之時,清風明月之夜,焚香淨坐,心不外馳,氣血和平,方可與神合靈,與道合妙。不遇知音則不彈也。如無知音,寧對清風明月、蒼松怪石、顛猿老鶴而鼓耳,是為自得其樂也。

然如是鼓琴,須要解意。知其意則有其趣,則有其樂。不知意趣,雖熟何益,徒多無補。先要人物風韻標格清楚,又要指法好,取聲好,胸中要有德,口上要有髯,肚裡要有墨,六者兼備,方無忝於琴道。

如欲鼓琴,先須衣冠整肅,或鶴氅,或深衣,要如古人之儀表,方可雅稱聖人之器。然後盥手焚香,方才就榻。以琴案近座,第五徽當對其心,則兩手指法俱便。置於膝亦然。其身必欲正,無得左右傾欹,前後仰合。其足履地,若射步之狀。目宜左顧徽弦,不宜右視其手。手腕宜低平,不宜高昂。左手要對徽,右手要近嶽。指甲不可長,只留一米許,甲肉相半聲不枯、清潤得宜。

打令斷弦,按令入木。擘、托、抹、挑、勾、剔、吟、猱、觸、撞、鎖、歷之法,皆令極盡其力,不宜飛舞作勢輕薄之態。欲要手勢花巧以為好看,莫若推琴而舞。若要聲音艷麗以為好聽,莫若棄琴而彈箏。此為琴家之大忌也。務使輕重疾徐卷舒自若,體態尊重,方能心與妙會,神與道融。

故曰:德不在手而在心,樂不在聲而在道,興不在音而在趣,可以感天地之和,可以合神明之德。又曰。左手吟猱綽注。右手輕重疾徐。更有一般難說。其人須是讀書。

My attempt translation..
There was a saying: “The qin, (is to) restrain (oneself),” restrain oneself from depraved and back to correctitude, so one’s heart can be calm and peaceful. Therefore ancient sages made rules to cultivate (qin player’s) behavior and  temperament, to be harmonized with nature, to suppress excessive and loose in morals and expend extravagantly,  to naturalize the way (of the qin).  That is why the qin is played. 

When playing the qin, one must find a clean and lofty room. Or at the place where It can be at a high leveled floor, or within forest and rocks, or on a top of mountain, or on a bank next to flowing water. In the two clear and comfortable seasons, a night with clear wind and bright moon, burning incense and sit calmly, mind is focused, energy is peaceful, then one can harmonized the body and spirit, and to reach the way (of the qin). If there is no one who understand the music, one does not play the qin. Or rather to play the qin to clear wind and bright moon, to dark green pine trees and unusual rocks, to active monkeys and old cranes, in order to gain self enjoyment. 

Playing the qin, one needs to understand the meaning of the music piece he or she is playing, and knowing how to create interesting and beautiful sound. If one does not know the meaning of the music piece, even well familiar with the playing techniques, and can play many pieces like that, that is not helpful. First the player has to have a refined personality, then well trained fingering techniques and good articulation, good virtue and knowledgeable, all that will help the player to be on the right path to the way of qin. (I have to confess that my translation is adjusted a little bit, since the original text was written to men only, not written to women. There is one rule - must grow mustache...)  
Playing the qin, one has to dress properly..., then wash hands, sit down next to the qin table, position as one's heart lined up with the 5th hui, so both hands can move easily. Same condition as playing the qin on the knees. The back has to be straight and not leaning to the left or to the right, or bent forward or face upward. Feet touch the ground as the feet position of shooting. (some prefer parallel). Eyes should look at the string and hui positions of the left hand, and do not look at the right hand. Both wrists should  keep flat but not raised too high. Left hand has to press or touch at the right hui position, while right hand has to play near the Yue mountain (bridge). Do not grow nails too long, but about the thickness of a rice (it does not say which hand, but should be the right hand, and the left hand nails should keep short). Sound comes out from within the finger tip muscle and nail (of the right hand), so it won't sound dry or lifeless, but clear and smooth.

If playing the "da" technique (or simply means the right hand plucking), play it as you will break the string (means giving some forth). If you are pressing (with the left hand), make it as you want to have your finger entering the wood. You want to make the best effort of all techniques (bo, tuo, muo, tiao, gou, ti, suo, li and vibrato such as yin, nao, zhuang). Do not perform with both hands as flying and dancing. If one wants to have flamboyant hand gesture, one rather push away the qin and stand up to dance. If one wants to create attractive and glamorous sound, one rather give up the qin but play the zheng. As those are the major behavior to avoid while playing the qin. 

The rest I will quot Ven Gulik's translation:

The greatest emphasis must be laid on [distinguishing between] the light and heavy, the swift and slow touch, and between the decrescendo and crescendo.

When one's self is naturally aloof and earnest, then one shall correspond to the Mystery of the Way, and one's soul shall melt together with the Way. Therefore it is said that successfully executing music is not caused by the hands, but by the heart, that music is not produced by notes but by the Way. When one does not strive to express music in tones, but lets it come naturally, then one may experience the Harmony of Heaven and Earth, then one may be in communication with the virtue of the Universal Spirit.

Also it is said: The vibrato, the vibrato ritardando, the ascending and the descending attack of the left hand, the light or the heavy, the swift or the slow touch of the right hand, all these things can hardly be explained in words. They can be understood only by a man of learning. 

Thursday, February 1, 2018

廣陵散 study Journal


吳景略先生的演奏, 放慢了10% 速度. (即便如此還是很快呀~~)


管平湖先生的演奏



丁酉年十二月十六日, 開始打譜廣陵散. 參考幾位名家的廣陵散演奏 以神奇秘譜為本. 喬珊女士的視屏是根據管平湖先生的打譜.

開指的首句中有:
大四摘涓五六= 摘五摘六, 抹五六勾五六
2018/2/1: 據顧梅羹先生的解釋, 摘涓是錯的, 應為倚涓, 也就是"抹五六勾五六"並有節奏變化. 並無摘.

吳景略先生聽起來像是只彈一遍摘捐五六
2018/2/1: 吳景略先生彈的類似顧梅羹先生說法但兩倚涓間有一點他自己的加花, 我感覺.


開指的結尾有此"土口"冬, 雖知表示此段終, 但"土口" 或表"起句? 實際是甚麼字 not sure yet.

題外話
"土" 有"走"之意= 右手輪, 左手注是也
"口"有"吟" "另" "合" 等不同意思

喬珊女士的演奏至正聲畢 (第25段 投劍)
孔子文小姐演奏的節縮很多


止息的第一句
從 ] 三作大間勾
喬珊 --> 名十打五 奐 散挑七大間勾 共三作
吳景略 --> 名十打五 奐 散挑七三作, 然後才一個大間勾

2018/2/1
若據顧梅羹先生的解釋, 那麼喬珊女士根據管平湖先生彈法是不對的.而吳景略先生彈的是對的. 



關於"奐"

管平湖先生的"奐" 有很強的"進復"的感覺.
吳景略先生的"奐"有時聽起來像很快的"退復", 有很多處都像是"用韻" 的表現. 相對, 管先生的比較一板一眼, 吳先生的比較多韻更為哀怨. 但吳先生彈的之快, 不容易欣賞.

奐: 根據宋 成玉礀的琴書大全: 注少許略作猱聲, 而復引中少許曰喚. 如大九打四奐, 蓋大指承下聲, 略注過九徽二三分許, 就猱一聲, 而復帶引過九徽之上, 皆不出二三分許. (減字作奐)

到了元的吳澄認為按指得聲引上半徽 , 比宋少了一個注少許略猱的動作.

明 崇昭王妃認為是過絃之法, 類似"分開"的音之連接

到了清就說是同"豆"(反撞), 類"撞"但比撞稍微緩慢些, 又或撞是得音之後, 奐是承聲

我個人喜好用宋朝的解釋

2/1/2018 : "出指奐起"顧梅羹先生認為應為"奐出指起", 即奐豆後推出.

第二段第一句挑七之後的重複作問題:
只有吳景略彈出奐三旨的打五, 然後散挑七, 然後(打五挑七) x 3 + 小間勾
下一句again, 奐三旨的打五, 散挑七, 然後(打五挑七)  x 3 + 大間勾

喬珊彈的是(打五, 散挑七) x3 +小間勾.
然後 (打五, 散挑七, 大間勾) x3

我決定第一句按吳景略先生的方式彈, 因覺得最接近譜本. 奐三旨應該就是三奐旨. 但第二個三作按喬珊也就是管先生的彈法.

2/1/2018 : 決定全部改用吳景略先生的彈法. 因為受了顧梅羹先生解說的影響. 可也不認為喬珊女士的彈法不好, 在聽覺上都滿入耳的

奐旨: 元 吳澄 - 本用大指, 次聲卻用別指

12/20/2017

彈到止息的第三段的[大九打一散挑四從[三作大間勾, 才發現琴若斲的好的話, 此處大間勾左手按弦會比較輕鬆.

12/21/2017
  • 止息, 在神奇秘譜是廣陵散的小序. 共有三段. 王迪在[廣陵散初探]文中認為止息的三段本身可以自成一章節, 其大間勾, 小間勾, 多次重複, 是一個模擬性的鼓段.
  • 而開指與止息是宋以後的產物. 其他則是創作於隋唐.
  • 那麼嵇康在[琴賦]中提到的止息, 應該不是神奇秘譜裡的止息段.

耶律楚材對廣陵散所寫的詩:

第一句: 
忘身志慷慨, 別姊情慘戚.


  • 耶律楚材彈的就有可能是隋的傳本, 也可能很接近神奇秘譜. [忘身] [衝冠][呼幽] [長虹] [發怒] [寒風] 都有出現在神奇秘譜, 皆在"亂聲"之前.
  • 但根據王迪的紀錄管平胡先生認為廣陵散的樂曲表現與神奇秘譜的小標題多有不符. 認為是後人牽強附會所標.

2018/01/15
目前練到大序的申誠
所遇到的"奐" 似乎有"奐音" 與"奐指" 兩種
奐音是裝飾音, 與吟猱撞豆同屬
奐指是指頭的交換. 可以是左手也可以是右手


需唸多幾遍方能了解語意
如"中指虛掩一絃 出指奐起"- 在小序止息第一段的最後. 應是左中指推出前豆一下之意.
馬上看到第二段開頭, 食中名打五奐三指, 應是左右手同時奐指頭彈之意.

止息總共出現有五次三作大小間勾等. 其中只有一次在第二段第一句說"從 ] 三作了小間勾. 有一個"了"字. 其他都沒有"了"字 , 我認為有"了"跟沒有"了", 彈法會不一樣. 但吳景略先生都彈一樣, 就是都有"了" 的彈法, 把前兩音打挑視為一組與間勾分開. 而沒有"了"的就是管先生的彈法, 打挑與間勾是一組音.  兩種彈法我覺得都好. 並不影響曲意太多. 但我還是以管先生彈法為依. 除了換三指. 這在前面已提到.

2018/02/01 如前所說, 因同意顧梅羹先生的說法, 現改變觀念,改為吳景略先生的彈法. 

彈到目前為止, 感覺像是戲曲的配樂. 一幕一幕在慢慢地走入劇中.

2018/02/01

大序 申誠第二 第一個音當為倚涓四五, 非四三.

里=點, 左指點絃扣起有聲. 如虛掩.

[因時第四]有撮四六,再反撮四六...引上六七. --> 聽吳景略先生彈的是為引上四七. 而管平湖先生的像是引下六七. 我決定以吳先生的為準.

因為彈到[因時第四]遇到"大八剔六夕一二" 感到困惑, 往下看到弗滾一二, 遂了解當為"大八剔滾一二"
facebook 上得Charles 友提示看顧梅羹先生的解釋, 對於剔滾是否為剔完再滾或用中指做滾. 已得解答. 當為用中指做滾. 只不過我心中仍多少還存疑些, 相信待全曲打譜完之後會有所悟.

存疑處乃在於那句最後有這麼一句"大八弗滾一二九聲節上七往來" 那個"九聲", 是"就"聲的筆誤,還是指前面剔滾二作剔滾弗滾共九聲? 如果共九聲, 那剔滾就有可能是剔完再滾. 但想想也可能印刷時錯把"尤"當"九" 也不無可能. (搔頭呀~) (吳景略先生彈的總共六聲 是如顧先生的說法.)

就好像此段最後的滾六三, 應為滾六至一, 可確定為印刷上的筆誤.

另外, 關於擘, 拖, 到底是向自身或向徽,(還有參考"挑") 我對則全和尚的解釋很有感.
吾以為若"挑"是有大指掐食, 接著做"擘"而又要快速的話, 擘向自身是比較順手. 除非大不掐食, 那做擘向徽才能比較順手.
這是在小序止息中出現多次的歷(連挑)完兩絃後擘的指法上,覺得擘向自身比較自然. 但也有可能還是習慣不習慣的問題, 如果歷不用大指掐食, 然後大指擘向徽, 是可以產生大指擘完後煞住下一絃的聲音. 反之大指如果是擘向自身, 則無止煞音, 出音效果不同.

唐朝趙耶利:大指上檯一絃為擘 

宋朝的則全和尚對"拖"的解釋似乎會因速度而改變大指向內或向外.

則全和尚對"挑"的解釋

唐趙耶利:大指上檯一絃為擘, 反為拖. 但不見北魏陳仲儒之解. 


2/4/2018

彈琴不是僅止於音樂演奏或只為表演, 這當中有多少待挖掘卻永遠也挖掘不完的人文思想, 藝術, 文化等等. 彈琴也是向內發現自己本性的最好道器. 人在靜態中能見水裡一切.

2/17/2018
Practicing of Guanglin San Daxu: Jing Li The First, Sheng Cheng The Second 廣陵散 大序: 井里 第一 申誠 第二 練習




2/19/2018

連蠲出現在大序因時第四的倒數第三行(連蠲三, 勾四),及干時第五的倒數第二行(從]用連蠲在作)
連蠲按照最早的解釋, 我的理解就是連彈兩次蠲.
吳景略並沒有彈出雙蠲, 只彈單蠲.
管平湖在因時第四有彈出雙蠲, 但干時則只彈單蠲, 如果我沒有聽錯的話.

3/1/2018
奐三旨
Sorry, I don't know how to turn this video upside down. Just recorded with my tablet.


3/11/2018
Right now up to 正聲 呼幽第二
I put my practicing of the 換三指 clip (turned it upside down now) and 正聲取韓第一呼幽第二 clip together at this video below.
Each clip took more hours of practicing to just be able to play smoothly and remember the fingerings.
每一小段的練習, 都花了多個鐘頭, 才能彈的比較順. 並且能背下來.


3/13/2018

大七八剔鎖七 => 剔勾剔七絃 (按顧梅羹先生的解釋)
3/11的視屏裡我彈了一個剔鎖是先剔在鎖三聲共四聲, 按顧梅羹先生的意思, 應為剔勾剔三聲即可, 不須再先前加一個剔.

蠲弗一二剔滾二一  => 用蠲的方式彈出的效果(產生疊音), 再用剔彈出的效果(一個剌音)

3/21/2018

作氣  第四

一開始的泛音記號應該移到[名十二末六]之前

員婁 = 明以前至少有兩種彈法: 如 [烏絲欄指法] 稱食中名三指相度勾三條絃, 又或是:緩全扶宮商, 無名仍隨後勾過宮商不挹之, (不抑止).
宋 成玉磵 稱 抹勾兩絃作一聲. 如員婁四六(正是廣陵散作氣第四的兩絃) 勾四抹六全(如)一聲也.


4/17/2018 找出了孔子文小姐演奏的部分為:
開指
小序
止息第一段+第三段的第一句
大序 井里
申誠
順物
因時到最後倒數第三行中間直接跳到干時的最後兩行, 從[ 處到大序畢
徇物
衝冠
長虹
寒風
發怒第一句泛音, 接含光 + 投劍最後有一個大七八弗一至七蠲九聲虛起, 到最後一段泛音到正聲畢

如果想要彈短一點的廣陵散, 我覺得可參考孔子文小姐演奏的節縮版.


4/27/2018
藉由錄自己的練習, 是檢視自己的好方法. 剛能把譜背下來, 所以還是彈得很生澀.  已看見一些錯誤. 也看見許多可以改進的地方. 通常後半總是不如前半熟練. [長虹]的節奏還沒掌握好.  快節奏的地方還不夠放鬆. 繼續練...

It is a good way to exam myself by recording my own practicing. I am just at the stage of be able to play without looking at the music sheets, so still playing it very choppy. I see several mistakes and many parts can be improved. Usually the first half is smoother than the last half. The rhythm of [Chang Hong] does not handle well yet. Fast paced area is not relaxed enough. I will continue practicing.
https://youtu.be/2tqTFxWHMq8