Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Taking the Principles of Practicing Taichi to the qin playing


Playing qin is pretty much related to practicing Taichi (or Taijiquan). Here I attempted to translate the 10 principles of practicing Taichi to English. The Chinese part was taken from Zhengzi Taichiquan.

Many concept are not easy to translate due to my limited English skill. If anyone has better idea, please let me know. I'll be very appreciate it.

一、虛靈頂勁:頂勁者,頭容正直,神貫於頂也。不可用力,用力則項強血氣不能流通,須有虛靈自然之意。非有虛靈頂勁,則精神不能提

1,  Xū líng dǐng jìn : "Xu" means empty, humble, void or abstract, the opposite of solid, or concrete. "Ling" means spirit. "Ding Jin" means that the head is upright, so the spirit goes to the top. However, don't use force. Using force, the neck will become stiff and the blood circulation won't be smooth. Keep the idea of emptiness and nature. If there is no emptiness, then the spirit and energy cannot be raised.

二、含胸拔背:含胸者,胸略內涵,使氣沉於丹田也。胸忌挺出,挺出則氣擁於胸際,上重下輕,腳根易於浮起。拔背者,氣貼於背也。能含胸則自能拔背,能拔背則力能由背發,所向無敵也。

2, Hánxiōng bá bèi : Han Xiong means that the chest is a little bit sunk in, in order to let the energy go down to the Dantian. Make sure that the chest is not elongated and standing out. If the chest is elongated and out, the qi energy will all stay in the chest area, and that will cause a heavier top and lighter bottom, and the heels will become unstable. While the back should be a little bit pulled, in order to enable the force energy to come out from the back to protect the whole body to be invincible.

三、鬆腰:腰為一身主宰,能鬆腰後兩足有力,下盤穩固。虛實變化,皆由腰動。故曰命意源頭在腰際,有不得力,必於腰腿求之也。

3,   Sōng yāo, loosen waist:  Our waist dominates the whole body. If one can loosen the waist, then the two legs become stronger, and the lower part of the body becomes stable. All the changes of abstract and concrete are ruled by the action of the waist.  Therefore, the source of energy is at the waist. If there is no effective energy, one must be pursued from the waist and legs.

四、分虛實:太極拳以分虛實為第一義。如全身皆坐在右腿,則右腿為實,左腿為虛。全身坐在左腿,則左腿為實,右腿為虛。虛實能分,而後轉動輕靈,毫不用力。如不能分,則邁步重滯,自立不穩, 而易為人所牽動。

4,   Fēn xūshí,  distinguish the "abstract (emptiness)" and "concrete (solidness)": The most important principle of Taichiquan is the distinguishing of abstract and concrete. If the weight is on the right leg, then the right leg is the concrete one and the left leg is the abstract one, and vice versa.  After distinguishing the abstract and concrete, then the movement will become more easy without using any force. If one cannot distinguish the abstract and concrete, the steps will become heavy and stagnant, and standing will become unstable and easy to be pushed by others.

五、沉肩墜肘:沉肩者,肩鬆開下垂也。若不能鬆垂,兩肩端起,則氣亦隨之而上,全身皆不得力矣。墜肘者,肘往下鬆墜之意。肘若懸起,則肩不能沉,放人不遠,近於外家拳之斷勁矣。

5, Chén Jiān Zhuì Zhǒu, drop shoulders and elbows: Shoulders should be relaxed and sagging, otherwise the shoulders will be shrugging, and the qi energy will follow the shoulder up, which will cause the whole body not to have efficient energy.  While the elbows are also dropped, so shoulders won't shrug. This way the energy won't be easily broken by outside force.

六、用意不用力:太極拳論所云,全是用意不用力。練太極拳,全身鬆開,不使有絲毫之拙力以留滯於筋骨血脈之間,以自束縛,然後能輕靈變化,圓轉自如。或疑不用力,何以能長力?蓋人身之有經絡,如地之有溝洫。溝恤不塞而水行,筋絡不閉而氣通。如渾身僵勁充滿經絡,氣血停滯,轉動不靈,牽一髮而全身動矣。若不用力而用意,意之所屆,氣即至焉。如是氣血流注,日日貫輸,周流全身,無時停滯,長久練習,則其真正內勁,即太極拳論中所云,極柔軟然後能極堅剛也。太極拳功夫純熟之人,臂膊如棉裹鐵,分量極沉。練外家拳者,用力則顯有力,不用力時則甚輕浮,可見其力乃外勁浮面之勁也。外家拳之力最易引動,不足尚也。

6, Yòngyì bùyòng lì, using mind but not using force: All the theory that Taijiquan talks about is on the idea of using the mind but not using the force. Practicing Taijiquan, the whole body has to be loose, in order not to let any clumsy energy stay in between blood and vessels, muscles and bones to constrain oneself. Then one can move easily and freely. When there is no energy blockage, then the mind can guide the qi energy to wherever the intention is. After much practicing, blood and qi energy flows through the whole body without blockage, and one can gain the real inner force. As Taijiquan theory often says that after the extreme soft, is the extreme power. When you see a master of Taijiquan, his or her arms are like iron covered with cotton, full of inner force.

七、上下相隨:上下相隨者,即太極拳論中所云,其根在腳,發於腿,主宰於腰,形於手指,由腳而腿而腰,總須完整一氣也。手動腰動足動,眼神亦隨之動,如是方可謂上下相隨,有一不動,即散亂也。

7, shàngxià xiāng suí, up and down coordinate with each other: The root is at the feet, developed to the legs, ruled by the waist, formed to the fingers, all that has to achieve as a whole. Hand moves, waist moves, feet moves, and the eyes also follow the movement, then it is said the up and down are coordinated with each other. If there is one part not following the movement, that is scattered.

八、內外相合:太極所練在神,故云神為主帥,身為軀使。精袖能提得起自然舉動輕靈。架子不外虛實開合。所謂開者,不但手足開,心意亦與之俱開;所謂合者,不但手足合,心意亦與之俱合:能內外合為一氣,則渾然無間矣。

8, Nèiwài xianghé, inside and outside matched: Taiji practicing is focused on the spirit (or mind), so it is called that the spirit is the master, and the body is driven by the master. The forms are basically no more than "opening" and "combining",  "abstract" and "concrete". "Open" means not only the hands and legs are open, but the mind is open as well. "Combine" means not only the hands and legs are coordinated, the mind is also merged. Inside and outside are as a whole, without any space in between.


九、相連不斷:外家拳術,其勁乃後天之拙勁,故有起有止,有續有斷。舊力已斷,新力未生地時,最易為人所乘。太極拳用意不用力,自始至終,綿綿不斷,周而復始,循環無窮,原論所謂,如長江大河滔滔不絕。又曰,運勁如抽絲,皆言其貫串一氣也。

9, Xiānglián bùduàn, continuous connection without any break: If the force has any break, the old force cannot connect to the new force, that is the weakest time to let outside force to take advantage. Taijiquan does not use force but mind, from the beginning to the end, continuous, round and round, endless cycle. Just like the endless flow in the Long River. It is also like pulling a silk thread, which all mean the continuous energy.

十、動中求靜動靜合一:外家拳以跳擲為能,用盡氣力,故練習之後,無不氣喘者。太極拳以靜制動,雖動猶靜。故練架子愈慢愈好,慢者呼吸深長。氣沉丹田,自無血脈僨張 之弊。學者細心體會,庶可得其意焉。

10, Dòng zhōng qiú jìng dòngjìng hé yī, While moving, seeking the stillness; the moving and the stillness are as one:  Too much jumping up and down will use too much energy. Taijiquan is using the stillness to control the moving energy. The slower the better for practicing all movements. When it is slow, the breath will be long. The qi energy will sink to the Dantian, therefore there will be no problem caused by sudden excitement. The learner should carefully experience it, then one can understand the essential meaning.

Tuesday, January 15, 2019

About Guang Ling San (Song of Guang Ling)

神奇秘譜的廣陵散一開始的介紹說按照[琴史] 所說的, 晉書記載的廣陵散, 是嵇康曾經遊歷會稽, 住宿在華陽亭. "引琴而彈, 夜兮忽有客詣(音意, 至的意思)之. 稱是古人, 與康共談音律. 辭致清辨. 因索琴而彈之. 為廣陵散曲. 聲調絕倫. 遂以授康. 仍誓不傳人"....然後因為政治及個性因素, 小人(鍾會)讒言,司馬懿聽信鍾會, 把康下詔入獄. 康將刑於東市. 顧視日影, 索琴彈之曰: 昔袁孝巳(巳應為尼, 康之甥)嘗從吾學廣陵散. 吾每靳(音近, 吝嗇不肯給予之意)之. 廣陵散如今絕矣... 而袁孝尼曾偷聽偷學, 得三十三拍(前三十三段), 後續成八拍(從"會止息意"到最後的八段). 似乎是說最後八段是袁孝尼自己弄出來的?...

"廣陵散曲, 世有二譜" 臞仙的神奇秘譜內所收的是"隋宮中所收之譜, 隋亡而入於唐, 唐亡流落於民間者有年. 至宋高宗建炎間, 復入於御府. 僅九百三十七年矣. 予以此譜為正. 故取之."

沈草農先生(1892-1972)在他的"漫談廣陵散" 一文中說:
在[太平廣記*, 文士傳]裡邊有一段記載: 嵇康臨死, 顏色不變, 謂其兄曰: "向以琴來否?" 兄曰: "已至" 康取調之, 為[太平引]. 曲成, 嘆息曰: 太平引絕於今日耶?
認為嵇康臨死前彈的並不是廣陵散, 而是太平引. 而太平引現今確實無法看到有哪一的譜本有收錄.

*《太平廣記》,是宋代李昉等人編著的大型類書,基本上是一部按类编纂的古代小说總集,凡五百卷。

吾查"太平引"在東皋禪師(1639-1696)的和文注音琴譜中有此曲, 然其註說第一段為賀東山所作, 第二段為辛棄疾(1140-1207)所作. 且其辭似乎為情詩, 當是與嵇康臨死前所彈的太平引非同曲.



吾又對"隋宮中所收之譜" 有所聯想, 此曲恐也是court music. 宮廷樂, 因其段落標題, 小序, 正聲, 亂聲, 等, 頗像有設計過的樂章之結構.



以上兩圖出於[存見古琴曲譜輯覽] page 總258, 259
神奇秘譜的廣陵散為隋唐間之譜的論見
七修續稿
以及到底廣陵散是否為嵇康所作還是廣陵當地漢代到晉代民間的流行曲

查阜西似乎同意金世宗時期(1161-1189)的中議大夫張崇所說的廣陵散並不是指曹魏的忠臣於廣陵一地散絕, 而是嵇康用民間聶政刺韓王的故事來抒發自己對司馬政權的不滿. 

認為此曲是嵇康所作的說法出於唐朝的大臣韓皋. 嵇康為了避禍才說此曲是神授. (不過我還是對張崇這句:"意其叔夜以廣陵名曲"的名是指流行有名, 還是命名的名, 仍不確定 ). 而耶律楚才認為張崇的說法是似而非. 耶律楚才認為嵇康將第二絃調成同一絃一樣的音高就代表了臣犯君, 指的就是司馬氏父子的以下犯上. 嵇康就是藉此提醒當時的曹魏國君.  看來不管是指毌丘儉還是指聶政刺韓王, 以上這些人都還是認為廣陵散是嵇康作的.

聶政刺韓王這個故事本身就已有兩個版本. 一說是聶政被嚴仲子顧了要殺韓相俠累(見史記), 一說是聶政自己為父報仇(見琴操)

聶政者,軹深井里人也。殺人避仇,與母、姊如齊,以屠為事。

久之,濮陽嚴仲子事韓哀侯,與韓相俠累有卻。嚴仲子恐誅,亡去,遊求人可以報俠累者。至齊,齊人或言聶政勇敢士也,避仇隱於屠者之閒。嚴仲子至門請,數反,然後具酒自暢聶政母前。酒酣,嚴仲子奉黃金百溢,前為聶政母壽。聶政驚怪其厚,固謝嚴仲子。嚴仲子固進,而聶政謝曰:“臣幸有老母,家貧,客遊以為狗屠,可以旦夕得甘毳以養親。親供養備,不敢當仲子之賜。”嚴仲子闢人,因為聶政言曰:“臣有仇,而行遊諸侯眾矣;然至齊,竊聞足下義甚高,故進百金者,將用為大人粗糲之費,得以交足下之驩,豈敢以有求望邪!”聶政曰:“臣所以降志辱身居市井屠者,徒幸以養老母;老母在,政身未敢以許人也。”嚴仲子固讓,聶政竟不肯受也。然嚴仲子卒備賓主之禮而去。

久之,聶政母死。既已葬,除服,聶政曰:“嗟乎!政乃市井之人,鼓刀以屠;而嚴仲子乃諸侯之卿相也,不遠千里,枉車騎而交臣。臣之所以待之,至淺鮮矣,未有大功可以稱者,而嚴仲子奉百金為親壽,我雖不受,然是者徒深知政也。夫賢者以感忿睚眥之意,而親信窮僻之人,而政獨安得嘿然而已乎!且前日要政,政徒以老母;老母今以天年終,政將為知己者用。”乃遂西至濮陽,見嚴仲子曰:“前日所以不許仲子者,徒以親在;今不幸而母以天年終。仲子所欲報仇者為誰?請得從事焉!”嚴仲子具告曰:“臣之仇韓相俠累,俠累又韓君之季父也,宗族盛多,居處兵衛甚設,臣欲使人刺之,(眾)終莫能就。今足下幸而不棄,請益其車騎壯士可為足下輔翼者。”聶政曰:“韓之與衛,相去中閒不甚遠,今殺人之相,相又國君之親,此其勢不可以多人,多人不能生得失,生得失則語洩,語洩是韓舉國而與仲子為讎,豈不殆哉!”遂謝車騎人徒,聶政乃辭獨行。

杖劍至韓,韓相俠累方坐府上,持兵戟而衛侍者甚眾。聶政直入,上階刺殺俠累,左右大亂。聶政大呼,所擊殺者數十人,因自皮面決眼,自屠出腸,遂以死。

韓取聶政屍暴於市,購問莫知誰子。於是韓(購)縣[購]之,有能言殺相俠累者予千金。久之莫知也。

政姊榮聞人有刺殺韓相者,賊不得,國不知其名姓,暴其屍而縣之千金,乃於邑曰:“其是吾弟與?嗟乎,嚴仲子知吾弟!”立起,如韓,之市,而死者果政也,伏尸哭極哀,曰:“是軹深井裡所謂聶政者也。”市行者諸眾人皆曰:“此人暴虐吾國相,王縣購其名姓千金,夫人不聞與?何敢來識之也?”榮應之曰:“聞之。然政所以蒙污辱自棄於市販之閒者,為老母幸無恙,妾未嫁也。親既以天年下世,妾已嫁夫,嚴仲子乃察舉吾弟困污之中而交之,澤厚矣,可柰何!士固為知己者死,今乃以妾尚在之故,重自刑以絕從,妾其柰何畏歿身之誅,終滅賢弟之名!”大驚韓市人。乃大呼天者三,卒於邑悲哀而死政之旁。

晉、楚、齊、衛聞之,皆曰:“非獨政能也,乃其姊亦烈女也。鄉使政誠知其姊無濡忍之志,不重暴骸之難,必絕險千里以列其名,姊弟俱僇於韓市者,亦未必敢以身許嚴仲子也。嚴仲子亦可謂知人能得士矣!”

琴操(傳為東漢蔡邕所撰)說"聶政刺韓王"是聶政作的. 


琴史(成書1084年, 宋朱長文所作) 說: 杜夔, 字公良 (三國時代河南人, 杜夔擅長音律,除歌舞外,絲竹八音皆能,其時他集各家之所長,教授講集,製作樂器,對恢復古樂有莫大貢獻。曹魏黃初年間, 220-226,任太樂令,協律都尉) ...妙於廣陵散, 嵇康就其子孟, 求得此聲. <-- 我本人是對此說很有感. 嵇康學廣陵散於杜夔之子杜孟, 杜夔精通於雅樂, 廣陵散於我確實頗有雅樂的感覺, 因此我個人認為此說很有可能.


再附上耶律楚才的[湛然居士集]內他所寫的"彈廣陵散終日而成因賦詩五十韵 并序"

About Guang Ling San (Song of Guang Ling), Who was the composer? 

There are several possibilities. One is that it was composed by Ji Kang (223–262) who was one of the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove. Another is that it was a folk song during the Han to Jin dynasties (around the 1st to 3rd centuries). There is also a rumor that this piece was originally called Nie Zheng Assassinate The King of Han 聶政刺韓王 and was composed by Nie Zheng (see Qin Cao).

What are the relations between Ji Kang and the Song of Guang Ling?

The Tang dynasty minister Han Gao wrote something about Guang Ling San (Song of Guang Ling) that Guanqiu Jian 毌丘儉 (died 16 March 255), a military general of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period (220-280),  and some other officers loyal to the sovereign of Cao Wei were killed by Sima Yi (who was also a military general, government official and regent of the state of Weiand his son at the Guang Ling area where is now Yangzho of Jiangsu province.  Ji Kang wrote this song with anger and indignation and named this melody with the name of the place to refer to those loyal officers were becoming extinct in the Guang Ling area. However, In order to avoid trouble, he told people that he was taught how to play the Guang Ling San by a ghost spirit. The Chinese character "San" 散, in here therefore means the extinction of the Cao Wei. But many still believe, such as Mr. 沈草農, that San means "song", as in Chinese 散, 引, 操, 弄, the characters to indicate "melody" or "song" but not the meaning of extinction.

Also, later during the reign of Emperor Shizong of Jin 金世宗 (1161-1189), a civil official Zhang Chong 張崇 wrote a preface to the Song of Guang Ling, saying that judging by the titles of each section, this song is about the story of the assassin Nie Zheng (died in 397 BCE) hired by the minister of Han in The Warring States Period (475–221 BC), Yian Zhongzi 嚴仲子 to kill the prime minister Xia Lei 俠累. So this piece is not related to Guanqiu Jian and others killed by Sima family at Yangzho. Although Ji Kang composed and named this piece Song of Guang Ling, he was using the story of Nie Zheng to hide his true intention towards the terrible behavior of Sima family.

However, Yelü Chucai (1190-1244) did not fully agree with Zhang Chong. Yelu Chucai's ( a statesman of Khitan ethnicity with royal family lineage to the Liao Dynasty) argument was that the second string, which was indicated as minister, was tuned lower to match the pitch of the first string, which was indicated as prince or king, that shows that the minister arrogated the rights. Ji Kang was trying to warn the king of Wei by using the story of Nie Zheng's assassination of the king of Han. 

No matter what, they all seemed to believe that Guang Ling San was composed by Ji Kang.

By the way, there are two versions of the story of the assassin Nie Zheng. One is from 史記 (The Records of the Grand Historian, written in 91 BCthat Nie Zheng was hired by Yian Zhongzi to kill the prime minister Xia Lei. The other one was from East Han [Qin Cao] by Cai Yong (133-192) that Nie Zheng assassinated the king of Han for his own revenge for his father, a sword maker, who was killed by the king of Han because the sword maker couldn't finish making the sword on time for the king. 

Other than the story of the assassin Nie Zheng, the book Qin Shi (History of the qin, published in 1084) by Song dynasty Zhu Chang-wen mentioned that Ji Kang learned the Song of Guang Ling from Du Meng whose father Du Kui was a court musician of Cao Wei. Du Kui was very good at playing the Song of Guang Ling. He also was an expert of Yayue,  (classical music performed at the royal court). I have a strong feeling towards this history, and I do feel that the structure of Guang Ling San from SQMP does give me a feeling that this piece was from court music. There are 開指 (opening fingers), 小序 (small prelude), 大序 (big prelude), 正聲(the main sound, or the main melody), 亂聲 (the finishing sound or the finishing melody) and 後序 (the epilogue).  From what I have studied so far, I believe that Guang Ling San was from Sui and Tang dynasty court music, and this court music was taken from folk music of the Guang Ling area. 

Regarding the story of Ji Kang playing the Guang Ling San before his execution, and claiming that the Guang Ling San was extinct from the moment of his death, I won't put too many words here. Some believed that the qin piece that Ji Kang played before his death was not Guang Ling San, but a piece called Tai Ping Yin 太平引, please see Mr. Sheng Caonong's (1892-1972) article [Free Talk about Guang Ling San 漫談廣陵散]. Mr. Sheng quoted this story from the Song dynasty book [Taipin Guangji] that when Ji Kang was going to be executed, he remained calm and asked his brother if the qin he requested had arrived or not, and his brother said yes. Ji Kang then took the qin and tuned it and played the Tai Ping Yin. After he finished playing, he sighed and claimed that; "this melody Tai Ping Yin is extinct from today." 太平廣記: 嵇康臨死, 顏色不變, 謂其兄曰: "向以琴來否?" 兄曰: "已至" 康取調之, 為[太平引]. 曲成, 嘆息曰: 太平引絕於今日耶

2019-01-12 to 15

--------------------------------
Please also read my Guang Ling San journal of study

Wednesday, December 12, 2018

讀陳拙[琴籍]遺篇

琴工



徽法 (明徽暗徽法)

明徽即是十三個點徽, 暗徽乃明徽與明徽之間的徽分位.

弦論



合弦法


指法

楊元錚先生撰寫的 "唐代陳拙[琴籍]殘帙的厘次" 一文中說... 陳拙(指法), 內容龐雜, 不盡是陳拙所作...
元錚此文對陳拙[琴籍]的還原, 條理分明. 思路縝密. 拜讀的同時拿出琴書大全來對照, 多有助益. 以下就把琴書大全上陳拙的部分po 上, 希望能越見分明.
詳見琴曲集成第五卷 [琴書大全] page 160-177 ("琴書大全"就是"永樂琴書集成". 永樂琴書集成為明成祖撰,成書於永樂六年,西元1409年)


I   指訣 (佚)
II  號指法
散聲
泛聲
木聲 (在琴書大全內沒有說明, 應如楊元錚整理, 見下列C)

(A) 右手運指法
a, 下指
大絃至四絃, 提腕下指, 重聲多用, 輕聲用少. 四絃至七絃, 低腕下指,
輕聲用多, 重聲用少

       b, 指分上下 -- 1, 大指 (大指是分裡外, 掌心為裡)
                                2, 食指
                                3, 中指
                                4, 名指 (食中名都是向徽位為上, 向自己為下)
                                5, 單弦上用指
                                6, 兩弦相並分指 (two strings next to each other)
                                7, 隔一弦兩弦分指 (such as string 5 and string 7, or string 4 and 7)
                                8, 隔三弦分指 (such as string 3 and string 7)
                                9, 三弦相間取三聲分指
                              10, 對過隨句末聲分指


絃間隔小,用名食,或中食
絃間隔越大,改用中指與大指
上下應是指上絃(一到三或四絃)下絃(四到七絃), 然後有掐起時, 對應掐起的那個音
的應合音就會有不同的分指, 一為散音的分指,一為按音的分指

      c, 指分遠近 -- 1, 起聲
                               2, 逆聲
                               3, 順聲 
                               4, 平聲 

右手取聲遠或取聲近,是以靠岳山為遠, 靠七徽為近. 所以從岳山到七徽都是右手可以取音的位置, 不是只能在一徽與岳山之間. 滾弗甚至可以到五六徽間了, 顯示連續音可以柔取.
樂曲一開始通常取近先, 再取遠, 由輕柔到剛強
泛音則是靠岳取, 聲音清脆強亮
如果取音先遠後近是為順聲, 先近後遠是為逆聲
都在同一徽位上取聲則為平聲

Tang Dynasty Chen Zhuo Guqin Fingerings mentioned that there are the terms "near taking and far taking" which refer to plucking positions of the right hand of qin playing.  'Near' means closer to the 7th hui, while 'far' means closer to the bridge (the Yue mountain) and not less than two inches from the bridge. 
When plucking closer to the bridge, the sound will be stronger, while plucking away from the bridge, the sound will be softer. For example, to strum several strings, like the "gun fu" technique, one can take between the 5th and 6th hui.
Harmonic sounds can be more clear and bright when taking near the bridge. 
Usually the starting notes of a piece can be taken away from the bridge, then followed by taking closer to the bridge to make a softer start. 
When playing several notes at the same hui area, it will create an equal sound volume. 
Most of the playing is around the 1st hui area.

(B) 左手按弦法 Left hand Pressing Method
       a, 用按
觀念: 手腕帶動手指, 如吟猱(手腕先左右動), 如連按三條絃或連按四條弦(手腕向上提一點, 手指依序施壓在七六五四弦)
The wrist will lead the finger, such as doing yin and nao vibratos, and when pressing several strings. When pressing several strings, the wrist will rise gradually a little bit in order to have the pressing finger shift force to string 7, 6, 5 and 4, for example. 

From Yao Bingyian's [Tang Dynasty Chen Zho's Thesis of Guqin Fingerings] 
順吟 就是撞吟. 撞完吟兩三聲 Zhuang Yin: Do the yin vibrato 2 to 3 times after the Zhuang technique.
逆吟 就是敦吟 敦完吟兩三聲 Dun Yin: Do the yin vibrato 2 to 3 times after the Dun (same as Dou, the opposite of Zhuang) technique.
注吟與綽吟是注下或綽上後少息,再吟兩三聲. Zhu Yin and Chuo Yin: Do the yin vibrato 2 to 3 times after the Sliding Down or Sliding Up. There is a pause before the yin vibrato action.

關於猱 閃 撋, 等說明,見下面(C)

       b, 單按 -- 1, 單按一聲作用
                        2, 單岸上下分聲分韻 (Single pressing, then goes up and down, with resonance)
                                  i 起頭 (The sliding Chuo up and Zhu down has to be 'hiding the beginning,' no starting point, but the end point is on the indicated hui position. If it is a slow starting, then the hidden beginning is further away from the end point. If it is a faster starting, then the hidden beginning is closer to the end point.)  

                                 ii 承聲
                                iii 就聲
                               iiii 接韻 ("絃"韻應為"接"韻)
                              iiiii 余韻



                        3, 單按相連兩聲
      c, 并按 -- 1, 大指并按
                       2, 食指并按
                       3, 中指并按 
                       4, 名指并按
                       5, 換指并按
       d, 歷按
       e, 兩按
       f, 應律
       g, 飛弦





以上三頁, 木聲以下, 見楊元錚的整理, 列到了 (C). 稍微解釋一下, 楊是以表格方式陳列, 我用 I, A, a, 1, i 明列如下
姚炳炎先生[唐代陳拙論古琴指法]是把"取聲指法有七" 改列到他的第二章, 丙, 聲法 之下. 而姚先生的第二章的乙," 彈琴用指(指法)", 以及琴書大全內的"撫按手勢"之後的"彈琴用指," 按楊元錚所說, 彈琴用指非陳拙自己作的, 也非陳拙整理的. 而是獨立於陳拙指法外的指法書. 原因是陳拙的絃名專用一, 二, 三, 四, 五, 六, 七. 而彈琴用指中則專用宮, 商, 角, 徵, 羽, 文, 武.
   
(C) 取聲指法 
       a, 吟 (大指吟)(骨節著面, 節邊純肉按弦, 來往細動而吟)
       b, 振 (食指振)(綽上至徽, 細細用力, 往下猛振)
       c, 蹴 (中指蹴)(急細往來)(有承聲蹴; 有節蹴, 就是先有聲, 停一下, 再做細吟)
       d, 敏 (名指敏)(按絃右左細颯)(颯: 如風聲, 當有柔細之意)
       e, 偷吟 (感覺有如今之定吟, 無名跪指用偷吟)
       f, 二憾 (裏憾, 外憾, 聲後憾, 承聲憾) 其聲沉細而清, 類撞(外憾), 及敦(裏憾)
       g, 搖指 (感覺像是長吟- 左右不住搖, 其聲清麗) 
       h, 圈 (當徽按絃, 指面圓轉一遭, 有先往裏也有先往外)
       i,  猱臑(音鬧)有五:正猱(聲後猱),上猱(倒猱,聲前猱),下猱,夾徽猱,再猱
       j,  撋 (ruán 揉搓, 以上重點均在掌腕左右的搖動, 或可理解為短猱的一種?)

吾以為吟振蹴敏都是細吟(次數上是往來細細吟動數次, 幅度很細), 是分別不同指頭給出不同名稱. 雖在不同指頭, 但道理都是一樣. 如果道理都是一樣, 又有"往下猛振" 又有"颯" 那也就是說還包含了力道是往下比往上強勁一點, 左右一強一弱

的話, 次數上應該是只有往左或往右快速來回一下, 但又不比撞敦力道強或幅度大(唯撞敦有雄壯之聲). 而憾的音質是沉細乾淨清楚.

搖指 有承聲, 有聲後, 有先往裏後往外, 也有先往外後往裏, 有左右不停地搖動.  搖指的音質是清麗.

圈 當徽按絃, 指面圓轉一遭, 有先往裏也有先往外, 感覺是指左右來回有一畫圈的形貌.

憾指, 搖指, 圈, 都如水影搖花, 都與吟相類似,  四指均用.

要了解, 先把正猱搞懂. "撫按見聲, 猛引徽上, 急下至徽, " 因此次數是只有一上一下, 感覺類似撞, 但可能比吟的幅度大, 但又比撞的幅度小. 且時間點比撞要早一點. 

上猱會讓我感覺像是有奐的感覺, 是承聲, 是聲前, 在方向上是綽上超過指定徽位再上去一點點, 然後回到指定徽位. 幅度不大,  

下猱是上猱的相反方向但同理. 次數上有一遍, 兩遍, 三遍者.

夾徽猱 次數上是一上超過徽位,一下超過徽位,再一上回徽位, 方向上也是有兩種方向, either 先上, 或either 先下. 力道上是只有在最後回到徽位時是實聲, 前一上一下或一下一上都是虛聲.

再猱就是正猱完後再加一上(復至徽上少許)

"爭" 有差別的意思. "猱撋一類, 唯爭取聲長短, " 就是說猱和撋的差別在於取聲的長短, 猱長, 撋短. "猱亦有長短, 長猱離徽遠取, 短猱離徽近取. 猱和撋都是停止的時候不應到徽位, 不拘定處. 
有"奐" 的意思. 按指要有力, 要實在(有體). 如風荷覆水, 這就要向大自然多多觀察觀察. 看到了荷花與荷葉被風吹動的動態, 確實是在一個中心體上, 帶圓圈式的搖動, 並且那個搖動還會因荷葉, 荷花的重量, 產生實實虛虛, 作用反作用力, 並且停止時是無定處. 跟"吟" 的水影搖花是不一樣的風情與力作.



運徽 Right hand plucking, the nearest way should not passing the 6th hui (to the left). The left hand stand by position should not passing the 7th hui (to the right)
尋絃 Plucking and pressing the first string, usually use both middle fingers.
換指 Changing fingers (both hands have changing fingers)
    (a) 右手
          1, 兩換指 such as muo gou, or gou da etc,.
          2, 三換指 such as Lun and Qian.
    (b) 左手
          1, 兩換指 同聲法內的疊玉, 但聲法已佚, 姚註: 即"小蟹行"食中兩指向後退按.
          2, 三換指 同聲法內的貫珠聲. 姚註: 即"大蟹行"... 吾註: 食中名三指按同一條絃.右手用抹勾打, 神奇秘譜的廣陵散小序止息有此指法(但似乎也是三對指)
    (c) 對指 both right and left hand using same order of the fingers
          1, 單對指
          2, 兩對指
          3, 三對指


    (d) 起伏 姚註: 下指起指不可草率, 尤其"暫停伏歇", 更要聲斷意連.
          1, 右手  須分上下遠近.
          2, 左手 姚註:摯音至, 當空執住, 喻手勢也. 掣音撤, 曳(drag, pull) 也
          3, 礙指 不解, 感覺像是虛罨起.
          4, 結聲 姚註:摭起是韻後臨起, 摭似有聲, 比滔要輕, 不能像抓起一樣出一實聲.
          5, 按絃起伏 應是指吟猱撞逗一類之有上起下伏, 上輕下重之勢.
     
          1, 兩字句節奏
          2, 三字句節奏
          3, 四字句節奏
          4, 五字句節奏





     (f) 手勢
          1, 取聲手勢 
                 i 昇降手勢 (似只在說左手大指走絃上下時的手勢)
                ii 打圓手勢 (重點在如指劃圓)
               iii 散擘挑歷手勢 (存疑)
              iiii 按歷手勢 (重點在承聲, 應, 就按, 再歷)

          2, 撫按手勢 (右手撫左手按, 選定24聲, 右手12, 左手12, 像是歸類總結)

III 聲法 (佚)
IV 聲用 (佚)

V  韻用  韻就是出聲了以後還有一些剩餘的鳴響 Yun: After the sound is created, there is still some remaining sound and that remaining sound is Yun, (resonance).
       綽起 這綽起與現在的綽上不一樣, 綽起是聲後綽上或下, 有起無止, 當空散
       摭起 同現在的帶起, 推出, 比掐起輕.
       浮引, 浮抑 引是上, 抑是下, 與綽起有點像但不當空散, 而是要摭起. 浮引同"閃" 浮抑同"閃下," 可"閃"是列在"聲用"已經遺佚. 而"急閃"聲畢是不摭起的.  
       浮對過, 意對過 姚炳炎先生解浮對過"近於虛罨," 就是類似把現在的對掐起,大指不實作掐起,而是空起不掐, 讓餘韻出在名指罨下去的那聲. 意對過則如浮對過, 但名指不在一個實音徽位上. 感覺意對過所產生的韻可能是帶有一點半音, 或不在一個全音上或半音上之內的任何一音.

琴書大全內 的單絃上七法應該是寫在抹勾, 勾打等之前, 而疊, 衮, 度 應該列在三絃上三法之後, 緩全扶等應在兩絃上三法之後.



VI 聲訣

    聲同疾徐異 
    (A) 單絃上七法
    (B) 三絃上三法
    (C) 兩絃上三法

   聲法雙音 (兩絃如一聲)
   聲法重作 (重複其聲)
   聲分剛柔 (似乎與右手撥絃的位置, 近岳山或近六七徽, 產生的剛柔有關)
   名別聲相類 (名稱不同而聲相似, 見姚丙炎[唐代陳拙論古琴指法]註98-106)



琴書大全內的 從[彈琴用指]以後, 包括[要訣取聲], [資暇集](左手指容) 等都不是陳拙[琴籍]的內容
楊元錚 "唐陳拙指法"的實際成分



Monday, December 10, 2018

Post on FB in 2018 Fall

兩個王一個門的琴還是第一次看到 (明1460年 "題韻直音篇")

神 Shén - 聖不可知 unknow holly spirit
暢 chàng - 和樂濟世 optimist, happy, and to bring righteousness to the whole world
操 cāo - 憂愁窮獨 alone, worry, self cultivation and to seek refinement of oneself
琴曲中有神人暢, 南風暢, 也有猗蘭操, 遁世操等, 暢與操分別為"兼善天下"與"獨善其身". 當自身能力足夠,財富足夠,身心愉悅時, 能幫助眾生, 則為暢; 當有志難伸, 生活困頓時則只能獨善其身了.




最近才發現我的食指指甲必須修圓, 不能修尖, 不能太長, 而中指與無名指指甲長度也不能太長,最好比食指指甲留的要再短一些, 如此彈出的琴聲與運指各方面才會比較自然, 順手. 食指指甲太長會倒勾, 不利彈琴. 食指長度比中指短很多, 所以中指指甲不能太長. 每個人的手型都不一樣, 可以找出最適合自己彈琴的指甲長度. (10/30/2018)


Marilyn comments : 同意。蘇思棣先生也一樣說。。。Mr. Sou also advised to trim the nails closer and not leave them too long because the best sound came from the movement of the entire finger/hand motion/impulse and 'flesh' of the finger and not from the nail in isolation...Hard to explain but interesting that you noticed this recently...You have ideally shaped fingers -- tapered without prominent knuckles (mine are rather craggy-looking). Each lesson (which I've not had for a year now...) Mr. Sou spends time to correct my finger/hand configuration to coax the best sound from the string, and to get my hand-shape to conform in harmony with the curved shape of the qin (top board), more rounded, less angular, and with no extraneous movements...I do miss hearing you all play...
-----------------------------------------------
12/7/2018
Morning Taichi becomes the most important moment of my day.
早上面對太陽打太極,已成為我一天中最重要的時刻.

12/8/2018
寂然松間雪降
裹厚衣舞雲手
氣沉丹田
足跨纏絲 
冷然天地間
與道長存.
Silently, in pine trees, snow falling,
I bundled up, practicing cloud hands,
Qi stay at Dantian,
Feet and hip twining.
Surviving with the Dao between exclusive heaven and earth.



12/9/2018
今晨依舊入後院練氣
雪地站樁
以意導氣
感指尖漸暖
遂進屋練琴
一首八段新曲
前四段感氣韻已漸漸掌握
如今進入第五段
估計數月後八段皆成
便可移譜
以心彈琴
This morning, entering back yard again practicing taichi.
At the end of the practicing was Zhangzhuang - standing like a post in snow
Qi guided by mind.
After a while, ten finger tips getting warmer.
Back into the house to practice qin,
A new piece which has 8 sections.
Now I am up to section 4 and feeling the rhythm handled smoothly
Going to the section 5
Seems that several months later I will be able to finish all 8 sections,
Then I can move away the notation,
Using my heart to play this whole new piece.