Sunday, July 31, 2016

老木冰絃訴琴心

近日寫在[七堂論藝]的一篇拙文 

七堂是紐約市新成立的為推廣古琴及其相關文化不遺餘力的新生代團體. 非常用心. 有志一同者當給予關注與支持

文  張培幼

左按右撥
心對四五徽間
沉肩墜肘
目視左手
氣定神聚
平腕放鬆

七條絃 宮徵羽角
十三徽 粉蝶浮花
號猿升木 空谷傳聲
栖鳳梳翎 文豹抱物

掉尾撥剌 駢兩指而飄瞥
取喻於神物 默契於琴心


闔上書本 放下琴 起身走進廚房
燒一壺水 泡杯高山茶 記憶回到
庚辰陽祿那一年
我在紐約與她相遇 
此前從未聽過 見過 摸過  談過
自那時起
我的生命有了一個開天闢地的變化 
她是古琴 
一個很中國 
很古老的絃樂器
她的聲音讓我毛孔為之開張 
說不上道理
只覺得跟小時候學的古箏和鋼琴很不一樣

師說彈琴追求的目標是天人合一
又說那曾是巫師與天地感應的法器
甚麼是天人合一?
怎麼感應?
我很好奇想了解她
走進了她的世界後
發現的竟是造物者之無盡藏也


絃長無柱 出天籟之聲
純五度音 往而有返
指下蓄音 知人之靜躁
所謂自然者 非有意為自然
論物理, 論聲律, 論思想, 論美藝
不愧為 眾器之中 琴德最優

人生何短, 未來不可期, 
為了一點對生命延續的貪婪
往回追朔
翻古書古譜
看古詩古畫
那是經千載的寂寞神跱
歷萬代的豐瞻多姿

洞庭煙雨 江漢舒晴
八千兵散 泣別虞姬
憑虛馭風 長嘯空碧
不知風乘我 不知我乘風

老木與冰絃對話
訴說天地不老 人情多擾 
種種幽憤與無奈 何苦 
且放身心於山水 
一笑今古

Monday, July 18, 2016

The Chinese Instrument Guqin - Journey To The East



清平樂 七夕 Clear Peaceful Music - the 7th Night (of the 7th lunar Month)


原譜
和文注音琴譜




鵲橋成了的"了"字指法旁有一行小字, 我的理解為: 考 散四者 太簇也, 七徽一絃者 林鐘也, (須)八之合(乃)和矣. 並在原指法, [中七撮綽一散四]旁加[中五撮綽一散四][聿考]. 應是東皋校正七徽為五徽. 而後還有兩處他的校正. 盡向斯時的"盡"指法, 與最後魂銷的"銷"指法. 我的製譜是根據他的旁字為主. 

因為年初曾聽John Thompson 的打譜與紅梅的吟唱, 發現此340 年前的七夕小曲很是好聽. 於是自己也來撫琴彈唱. 感受一下東皋禪師在日本傳承此曲的一點影子. John 的website 有一些關於此曲的歷史資料. 我把 Lau Shing Hon 的 英文翻譯歌詞列於下:

Magpies have the Bridge built, yet pleasure only once a year yield. 
      Trying to be the first in the ladies' quarters to offer fruits afresh, praying for wit and skill. 
Gazing at the Dòuzhǔ galaxy afar; floating on a raft, planning for the night. 
      Who knows under the heavens now, with ecstasy our souls secretly aroused.

Please listen my qin playing and singing of Qing Ping Yue, Qixi:



Monday, July 4, 2016

台北故宮[東周時期秦、周與戎的藝術特色]

羽紋的組合



看完台北故宮蔡慶良助理研究員主講的「東周時期秦、周與戎的藝術特色」直播影片
作了以下紀錄:

西周-->東周(春秋,戰國,秦). 秦在西周時在甘肅落腳. 到春秋時已擴展到今天的關中平原(陝西), 到戰國時擴展到陝北及巴蜀. 西元前310年左右秦已成超級強國, 251BCE 秦始皇繼位前四年.四年後兼併東方六國. 秦到底從哪來? 可能是從山西(出土文物)或山東(文獻), 總之是東方到西方的甘肅來.秦開始發跡在甘肅. 春秋一開始, 周王朝封地給秦(襄公)並期望秦能趕走犬戎, 自此秦開始以中原人自居,向東發展兼併六國. 秦的政治地位是周王朝給予的. 秦公鼎- 秦正式成為大諸侯國. 秦的禮樂重器銅鐘石磬全是周的樣子周文化的傳統, 銘文是寫給祖先及後代看的. 

羽紋是解開商周藝術的鑰匙.(陰陽紋), 其藝術目的是讓你不敢逼視. 同一單元設計的重複組合. 西周人的設計-> 具有"Pi- π " 的設計. 羽紋是周文化的傳統. 在規範化中有巧思是最偉大的設計. 斜對角圓弧分割構圖設計. 但銘文是秦人的銘文. 拿老的東西改為新的設計. "神人"(鼻子向下)"神龍"(鼻子向上).

春秋中晚期周文化的影響漸趨式微, 戎文化開始加深, 春秋的秦都在雍城. 雍城定都300多年, 戰國時定都咸陽100 多年. 秦始皇的成年禮是在雍城舉行的. 雍城對秦來說是祖地... 造型用周, 裝飾用自己... 銅器從禮器轉變為賞玩用器... 子車是秦穆公的大臣(詩經, 秦風, 黃鳥)... 方直的線條是秦人的風格. 鏤空不是周人的傳統, 是秦經過文化交流後的設計.

詩經, 秦風, 黃鳥
http://e-info.org.tw/node/42018
交交黃鳥,止于棘。誰從穆公?子車奄息。
維此奄息,百夫之特。臨其穴,惴惴其慄。
彼蒼者天!殲我良人。如可贖兮,人百其身。
交交黃鳥,止于桑。誰從穆公?子車仲行。
維此仲行,百夫之防。臨其穴,惴惴其慄。
彼蒼者天!殲我良人。如可贖兮,人百其身。
交交黃鳥,止于楚。誰從穆公?子車鍼虎。
維此鍼虎,百夫之禦。臨其穴,惴惴其慄。
彼蒼者天!殲我良人。如可贖兮,人百其身。

黃鳥
黃鳥唧唧叫,密集棗樹上,
誰陪穆公殉葬,子車奄息啊。
這位奄息,百夫莫敵,
走近墓穴,渾身戰慄。
蒼天啊蒼天,為甚麼活埋好人,
如果可以贖身,寧可百人換一人。
黃鳥唧唧叫,密集桑樹上,
誰陪穆公殉葬,子車仲行啊。
這位仲行,德高望重,
走近墓穴,渾身哆嗦。
蒼天啊蒼天,為甚麼活埋好人,
如果可以贖身,寧可百人換一人。
黃鳥唧唧叫,密集楛籐上,
誰陪穆公殉葬,子車鍼虎啊。
這位鍼虎,強壯英武,
走近墓穴,渾身哆嗦。
蒼天啊蒼天,為甚麼活埋好人,
如果可以贖身,寧可百人換一人。

"在規範化中有巧思是最偉大的設計" --> 古琴曲中的"楚歌" 頗有在規範中做變化的巧思. 

Monday, June 20, 2016

Guqin’s Rhythm

有關琴曲之節奏[與古齋琴譜補義]這麼 說:

“琴 曲原具有自然之節,初試照譜彈,未易得成奏,習熟乃合節,漸至於神妙,此則存乎人。節即是板拍,《國語》所謂,“木以節之”也。琴曲譜不定板拍者,恐因定 固執而失入神化,非為初學者之但得其節奏而己也。然至入神化,亦莫不由於節奏而致矣。夫琴曲之音,因分長短緩急之度而成奏,拍即節其度之所以分也。有於音 初出之際即拍,曰頭板。於音已出未歇,適其中際而拍之,曰腰板。於音剛歇之際即拍,曰底板。是則於一音而分初中末三者之拍法也。又有於音已歇後再拍,曰閒板,須待其板聲已過,再接出其下之音,此無音而有拍也。曲中句末多一二閒板者,免緊接下音,而急促其奏,俾得展頭板,以舒其呼吸。更有於音宜舒轉而放慢拍 之,曰慢板;於音宜結束,而催緊拍之,曰緊板。皆由曲奏至此際,必爾而以成,亦自然而然者矣。其緊慢之板,均必得勻拍,總謂之節奏

琴 曲有一二音,或三五音,於同弦或各弦,而作數次者,音雖似繁複,為前後氣蓄,必如是乃成。須於此中分緩急,以合其節奏。初試細審聽,應如何得合,法在分別輕重疾徐之先後,與分幾聲之續上,幾聲之接下,得靈活留蓄,於其連斷頓挫之間,總以上下來去句讀,得呼吸氣息之自然為妙。”

My attempt translation...

Qing Dynasty Qin Handbook [YuGuZhai Qinpu Buyi] has talked about Qin Rhythm:
Qin music has natural rhythm. When starting playing a new piece by looking at its tablature, one might feel it is not easy to have the melody to sound good. After many practicing and get very familiar with the piece , the rhythm will then fit in. Gradually, one will find how wonderful it is, and will understand it.

Rhythm means the beats. Ancient people use wood to make the beating sound. Qin tablature does not indicate beats, that is because qin tablature is not made to limiting the player’s free mind.  Beginner might not be able to get the rhythm right, but once one gets it, a wonderful music will come out.
A piece of music has combination of different degrees of long, short, slow and fast sound . Beating system is to control all those degrees. There are different kinds of beat:

Head Beat: When a sound just come out on the beat, called the Head Beat.

Waist Beat: The beat happen right at the middle of a sound coming out and not yet finished.

Bottom Beat: The beat happen right at a sound just finished.

These three beats located at the beginning, middle, and the end of a sound.
Other than that, there is the “Idle Beat” which happen within two sounds, that the first sound has ended, then the beat happens, and then the next sound comes out. Also means there is beat(s) but no sound. Idle Beat happen often at the end of a phrase, in order not to have the next phrase coming out too soon to create a rush energy, also giving a room to breath.

There are also Slow Beat and Tight Beat.

Slow Beat : is to smooth down the music and turn into a slower temper.

Tight Beat: To hasten the sound from the previous ended sound.

Both Slow Beat and Tight Beat still need to be balanced within the music. And all the beats have to occur naturally.  All of that is called Rhythm.

A good music is based on the rhythm, no matter if it is one or two sounds, three to five sounds, in one string, or in several strings. Sound might be complicated, but based on the rhythm, it can accumulate the energy through the end. One must distinguish where to slow down, or hurry up and how many sound to stop or to continue, by carefully listening and analysis. Then flexible using it in connection and combination. After all, the best is to have natural breathing energy through the music.

Tuesday, June 7, 2016

上絃膠 Putting silk string glue onto the string



古琴有些牌子的絲絃如中國產的虎丘, 今虞等等(不含素心) 用一段時間會出現脫膠現象, 因此需要上絃膠. 但不適用日本絲弦丸山橋本及鳥羽屋, 此視頻僅限中國產的絲絃.

膠量為指尖上感到黏黏的就可以開始塗到絃上. 塗到指尖上的膠沒了就在抓一點膠沾一點水, 重複做幾次即可. 不用塗太多. 也不用常常塗, 有脫膠時才塗.

This video is showing how to put silk string glue onto the string. A little bit of Glue (Baiji or E-jiao/A-jiao) and a little bit of warm water can help the loosen silk fibers get back together again. First take a little bit of glue and dip in warm water with your finger tip. Then rub your fingers until glue melted and then rub onto the string as the video showing.

This is only useful for silk strings produced in China, not including Suxin and Japanese silk strings. Also do not over do it. No need to rub too much glue onto the string. It depends on how loose the fibers are. You can coated to the whole string (Yue Mountain to Dragon Gum) or just the portion where the fibers are loosen.

Only do this when there is fiber loosen, no need to do it too often.

Thursday, June 2, 2016

Fixing a damaged qin

Dragon Gum missing

Dragon Gum missing

add a piece of hard wood (oak)


5/5/2016- 5/12/2016 fixed the missing dragon gum
拿到這琴時龍齦已經不見了. 用一塊硬木慢慢磨出應有的高度與形狀, 黏上去之後, 上絃試音, 彈是可以彈了, 聲音請見下面連結.

5/5/2016 the lacquer cracks at the bottom board

removed the lacquer, wood cracks with holes can be seen

while putting black lacquer on, found one more hole that has penetrated the wood already.

I set the humidity too high so it dried too quick and caused wrinkles on the surface of the black lacquer I put on. 


sand it, put another thin layer of lacqur, and sand it, put another thin layer of lacquer, now it looks like this. I finally learned some experience of how to deal with Chinese lacquer. 





5/12/2016- 6/3/2016 Learning how to fix cracks of lacquer at the bottom board. All the process of learning is gloomy, but when I see the result, I learned something new. That makes me happy.

6/6/2016 This qin handed over to its owner. Discussed with the owner, we think the wood of  this qin might had been bitten by rats. Then someone tried to fix the damaged wood by covering small wood pieces then paint over with unknown paint. Because it qin bag has a big hole and around the hole, it looks like marks of animal teeth, very possible they are bitten by rats, and the location of the hole is where the qin tail was. But this is just guessing, still don't know the real reason what caused the damage. 

所有的學習過程皆是苦悶的, 特別是需要耐心與毅力的活. 一直以來都想嘗試玩玩大漆, 但早已聽說並不好玩, 要各方條件器具都符合, 又要身體強壯耐得住漆過敏, 與耐心等候漆乾的毅力與恆心. 我還不夠有耐心, 所以結果並不那麼完美, 希望琴主人見諒, 可我真的很感謝這學習的機會. 當學生拿來這張破損的琴, 我猶豫了很久到底要不要幫修, 可自己又沒有真正修過琴的經驗, 最後還是自告奮勇, 願幫免費修琴當作是學習. 很感謝學生願意給我這個機會. 

在北美因沒有大漆來源, 方圓百里基本也沒幾人知如何玩大漆, 我只能用僅有的台灣買的一小條黑生漆來自學自玩. 所有學習都是從失敗中學取經驗, 網上收尋各方有關上漆的資料, 也與網友交流經驗, 以前也跟Glenn 學過一點, 如今這麼玩下來還真的是學到很多. 最關鍵就是親身體驗. 否則理論只是理論. 

Listen this qin sound: 請聽此琴的聲音