Tuesday, February 13, 2018

風宣玄品 鼓琴訓論 Theory of instruction to the Qin Playing

風宣玄品  Ming Dynasty (1540) Qin Book .

鼓琴訓論 Theory of instruction to the Qin Playing

嘗謂「琴者,禁也」。禁邪歸正,以和人心。是故聖人之制,將以制身,育其情性,和其天倪,抑乎淫蕩,去乎奢侈,以抱吾道。此琴之所以為樂也。

凡鼓琴必擇淨室高堂,或升層樓之上,或於林石之間,或登山巔,或游水湄,值二氣高明之時,清風明月之夜,焚香淨坐,心不外馳,氣血和平,方可與神合靈,與道合妙。不遇知音則不彈也。如無知音,寧對清風明月、蒼松怪石、顛猿老鶴而鼓耳,是為自得其樂也。

然如是鼓琴,須要解意。知其意則有其趣,則有其樂。不知意趣,雖熟何益,徒多無補。先要人物風韻標格清楚,又要指法好,取聲好,胸中要有德,口上要有髯,肚裡要有墨,六者兼備,方無忝於琴道。

如欲鼓琴,先須衣冠整肅,或鶴氅,或深衣,要如古人之儀表,方可雅稱聖人之器。然後盥手焚香,方才就榻。以琴案近座,第五徽當對其心,則兩手指法俱便。置於膝亦然。其身必欲正,無得左右傾欹,前後仰合。其足履地,若射步之狀。目宜左顧徽弦,不宜右視其手。手腕宜低平,不宜高昂。左手要對徽,右手要近嶽。指甲不可長,只留一米許,甲肉相半聲不枯、清潤得宜。

打令斷弦,按令入木。擘、托、抹、挑、勾、剔、吟、猱、觸、撞、鎖、歷之法,皆令極盡其力,不宜飛舞作勢輕薄之態。欲要手勢花巧以為好看,莫若推琴而舞。若要聲音艷麗以為好聽,莫若棄琴而彈箏。此為琴家之大忌也。務使輕重疾徐卷舒自若,體態尊重,方能心與妙會,神與道融。

故曰:德不在手而在心,樂不在聲而在道,興不在音而在趣,可以感天地之和,可以合神明之德。又曰。左手吟猱綽注。右手輕重疾徐。更有一般難說。其人須是讀書。

My attempt translation..
There was a saying: “The qin, (is to) restrain (oneself),” restrain oneself from depraved and back to correctitude, so one’s heart can be calm and peaceful. Therefore ancient sages made rules to cultivate (qin player’s) behavior and  temperament, to be harmonized with nature, to suppress excessive and loose in morals and expend extravagantly,  to naturalize the way (of the qin).  That is why the qin is played. 

When playing the qin, one must find a clean and lofty room. Or at the place where It can be at a high leveled floor, or within forest and rocks, or on a top of mountain, or on a bank next to flowing water. In the two clear and comfortable seasons, a night with clear wind and bright moon, burning incense and sit calmly, mind is focused, energy is peaceful, then one can harmonized the body and spirit, and to reach the way (of the qin). If there is no one who understand the music, one does not play the qin. Or rather to play the qin to clear wind and bright moon, to dark green pine trees and unusual rocks, to active monkeys and old cranes, in order to gain self enjoyment. 

Playing the qin, one needs to understand the meaning of the music piece he or she is playing, and knowing how to create interesting and beautiful sound. If one does not know the meaning of the music piece, even well familiar with the playing techniques, and can play many pieces like that, that is not helpful. First the player has to have a refined personality, then well trained fingering techniques and good articulation, good virtue and knowledgeable, all that will help the player to be on the right path to the way of qin. (I have to confess that my translation is adjusted a little bit, since the original text was written to men only, not written to women. There is one rule - must grow mustache...)  
Playing the qin, one has to dress properly..., then wash hands, sit down next to the qin table, position as one's heart lined up with the 5th hui, so both hands can move easily. Same condition as playing the qin on the knees. The back has to be straight and not leaning to the left or to the right, or bent forward or face upward. Feet touch the ground as the feet position of shooting. (some prefer parallel). Eyes should look at the string and hui positions of the left hand, and do not look at the right hand. Both wrists should  keep flat but not raised too high. Left hand has to press or touch at the right hui position, while right hand has to play near the Yue mountain (bridge). Do not grow nails too long, but about the thickness of a rice (it does not say which hand, but should be the right hand, and the left hand nails should keep short). Sound comes out from within the finger tip muscle and nail (of the right hand), so it won't sound dry or lifeless, but clear and smooth.

If playing the "da" technique (or simply means the right hand plucking), play it as you will break the string (means giving some forth). If you are pressing (with the left hand), make it as you want to have your finger entering the wood. You want to make the best effort of all techniques (bo, tuo, muo, tiao, gou, ti, suo, li and vibrato such as yin, nao, zhuang). Do not perform with both hands as flying and dancing. If one wants to have flamboyant hand gesture, one rather push away the qin and stand up to dance. If one wants to create attractive and glamorous sound, one rather give up the qin but play the zheng. As those are the major behavior to avoid while playing the qin. 

The rest I will quot Ven Gulik's translation:

The greatest emphasis must be laid on [distinguishing between] the light and heavy, the swift and slow touch, and between the decrescendo and crescendo.

When one's self is naturally aloof and earnest, then one shall correspond to the Mystery of the Way, and one's soul shall melt together with the Way. Therefore it is said that successfully executing music is not caused by the hands, but by the heart, that music is not produced by notes but by the Way. When one does not strive to express music in tones, but lets it come naturally, then one may experience the Harmony of Heaven and Earth, then one may be in communication with the virtue of the Universal Spirit.

Also it is said: The vibrato, the vibrato ritardando, the ascending and the descending attack of the left hand, the light or the heavy, the swift or the slow touch of the right hand, all these things can hardly be explained in words. They can be understood only by a man of learning. 

Thursday, February 1, 2018

廣陵散 study Journal


吳景略先生的演奏, 放慢了10% 速度. (即便如此還是很快呀~~)


管平湖先生的演奏



丁酉年十二月十六日, 開始打譜廣陵散. 參考幾位名家的廣陵散演奏 以神奇秘譜為本. 喬珊女士的視屏是根據管平湖先生的打譜.

開指的首句中有:
大四摘涓五六= 摘五摘六, 抹五六勾五六
2018/2/1: 據顧梅羹先生的解釋, 摘涓是錯的, 應為倚涓, 也就是"抹五六勾五六"並有節奏變化. 並無摘.
2018/10/26: 烏絲欄指法釋 -- "名端 (名數發端): ...疊蠲...右抹兩絃, 勾兩絃, 後抹與前勾相續曰疊蠲... 近世譜中有言倚蠲者, 蓋第一聲少息, 而後三聲相續..."

吳景略先生聽起來像是只彈一遍摘捐五六
2018/2/1: 吳景略先生彈的類似顧梅羹先生說法但兩倚涓間有一點他自己的加花, 我感覺.


開指的結尾有此"土口"冬, 雖知表示此段終, 但"土口" 或表"起句? 實際是甚麼字 not sure yet.

題外話
"土" 有"走"之意= 右手輪, 左手注是也
"口"有"吟" "另" "合" 等不同意思

喬珊女士的演奏至正聲畢 (第25段 投劍)
孔子文小姐演奏的節縮很多


止息的第一句
從 ] 三作大間勾
喬珊 --> 名十打五 奐 散挑七大間勾 共三作
吳景略 --> 名十打五 奐 散挑七三作, 然後才一個大間勾

2018/2/1
若據顧梅羹先生的解釋, 那麼喬珊女士根據管平湖先生彈法是不對的.而吳景略先生彈的是對的. 



關於"奐"

管平湖先生的"奐" 有很強的"進復"的感覺.
吳景略先生的"奐"有時聽起來像很快的"退復", 有很多處都像是"用韻" 的表現. 相對, 管先生的比較一板一眼, 吳先生的比較多韻更為哀怨. 但吳先生彈的之快, 不容易欣賞.

奐: 根據宋 成玉礀的琴書大全: 注少許略作猱聲, 而復引中少許曰喚. 如大九打四奐, 蓋大指承下聲, 略注過九徽二三分許, 就猱一聲, 而復帶引過九徽之上, 皆不出二三分許. (減字作奐)

到了元的吳澄認為按指得聲引上半徽 , 比宋少了一個注少許略猱的動作.

明 崇昭王妃認為是過絃之法, 類似"分開"的音之連接

到了清就說是同"豆"(反撞), 類"撞"但比撞稍微緩慢些, 又或撞是得音之後, 奐是承聲

我個人喜好用宋朝的解釋

2/1/2018 : "出指奐起"顧梅羹先生認為應為"奐出指起", 即奐豆後推出.

第二段第一句挑七之後的重複作問題:
只有吳景略彈出奐三旨的打五, 然後散挑七, 然後(打五挑七) x 3 + 小間勾
下一句again, 奐三旨的打五, 散挑七, 然後(打五挑七)  x 3 + 大間勾

喬珊彈的是(打五, 散挑七) x3 +小間勾.
然後 (打五, 散挑七, 大間勾) x3

我決定第一句按吳景略先生的方式彈, 因覺得最接近譜本. 奐三旨應該就是三奐旨. 但第二個三作按喬珊也就是管先生的彈法.

2/1/2018 : 決定全部改用吳景略先生的彈法. 因為受了顧梅羹先生解說的影響. 可也不認為喬珊女士的彈法不好, 在聽覺上都滿入耳的

奐旨: 元 吳澄 - 本用大指, 次聲卻用別指

12/20/2017

彈到止息的第三段的[大九打一散挑四從[三作大間勾, 才發現琴若斲的好的話, 此處大間勾左手按弦會比較輕鬆.

12/21/2017
  • 止息, 在神奇秘譜是廣陵散的小序. 共有三段. 王迪在[廣陵散初探]文中認為止息的三段本身可以自成一章節, 其大間勾, 小間勾, 多次重複, 是一個模擬性的鼓段.
  • 而開指與止息是宋以後的產物. 其他則是創作於隋唐.
  • 那麼嵇康在[琴賦]中提到的止息, 應該不是神奇秘譜裡的止息段.

耶律楚材對廣陵散所寫的詩:

第一句: 
忘身志慷慨, 別姊情慘戚.


  • 耶律楚材彈的就有可能是隋的傳本, 也可能很接近神奇秘譜. [忘身] [衝冠][呼幽] [長虹] [發怒] [寒風] 都有出現在神奇秘譜, 皆在"亂聲"之前.
  • 但根據王迪的紀錄管平胡先生認為廣陵散的樂曲表現與神奇秘譜的小標題多有不符. 認為是後人牽強附會所標.

2018/01/15
目前練到大序的申誠
所遇到的"奐" 似乎有"奐音" 與"奐指" 兩種
奐音是裝飾音, 與吟猱撞豆同屬
奐指是指頭的交換. 可以是左手也可以是右手


需唸多幾遍方能了解語意
如"中指虛掩一絃 出指奐起"- 在小序止息第一段的最後. 應是左中指推出前豆一下之意.
馬上看到第二段開頭, 食中名打五奐三指, 應是左右手同時奐指頭彈之意.

止息總共出現有五次三作大小間勾等. 其中只有一次在第二段第一句說"從 ] 三作了小間勾. 有一個"了"字. 其他都沒有"了"字 , 我認為有"了"跟沒有"了", 彈法會不一樣. 但吳景略先生都彈一樣, 就是都有"了" 的彈法, 把前兩音打挑視為一組與間勾分開. 而沒有"了"的就是管先生的彈法, 打挑與間勾是一組音.  兩種彈法我覺得都好. 並不影響曲意太多. 但我還是以管先生彈法為依. 除了換三指. 這在前面已提到.

2018/02/01 如前所說, 因同意顧梅羹先生的說法, 現改變觀念,改為吳景略先生的彈法. 

彈到目前為止, 感覺像是戲曲的配樂. 一幕一幕在慢慢地走入劇中.

2018/02/01

大序 申誠第二 第一個音當為倚涓四五, 非四三.

里=點, 左指點絃扣起有聲. 如虛掩.

[因時第四]有撮四六,再反撮四六...引上六七. --> 聽吳景略先生彈的是為引上四七. 而管平湖先生的像是引下六七. 我決定以吳先生的為準.

因為彈到[因時第四]遇到"大八剔六夕一二" 感到困惑, 往下看到弗滾一二, 遂了解當為"大八剔滾一二"
facebook 上得Charles 友提示看顧梅羹先生的解釋, 對於剔滾是否為剔完再滾或用中指做滾. 已得解答. 當為用中指做滾. 只不過我心中仍多少還存疑些, 相信待全曲打譜完之後會有所悟.

存疑處乃在於那句最後有這麼一句"大八弗滾一二九聲節上七往來" 那個"九聲", 是"就"聲的筆誤,還是指前面剔滾二作剔滾弗滾共九聲? 如果共九聲, 那剔滾就有可能是剔完再滾. 但想想也可能印刷時錯把"尤"當"九" 也不無可能. (搔頭呀~) (吳景略先生彈的總共六聲 是如顧先生的說法.)

就好像此段最後的滾六三, 應為滾六至一, 可確定為印刷上的筆誤.

另外, 關於擘, 拖, 到底是向自身或向徽,(還有參考"挑") 我對則全和尚的解釋很有感.
吾以為若"挑"是有大指掐食, 接著做"擘"而又要快速的話, 擘向自身是比較順手. 除非大不掐食, 那做擘向徽才能比較順手.
這是在小序止息中出現多次的歷(連挑)完兩絃後擘的指法上,覺得擘向自身比較自然. 但也有可能還是習慣不習慣的問題, 如果歷不用大指掐食, 然後大指擘向徽, 是可以產生大指擘完後煞住下一絃的聲音. 反之大指如果是擘向自身, 則無止煞音, 出音效果不同.

唐朝趙耶利:大指上檯一絃為擘 

宋朝的則全和尚對"拖"的解釋似乎會因速度而改變大指向內或向外.

則全和尚對"挑"的解釋

唐趙耶利:大指上檯一絃為擘, 反為拖. 但不見北魏陳仲儒之解. 

明 太音大全集 大入曰擘 出曰托 
凡用指向身曰內曰入
向徽曰外曰出


2/4/2018

彈琴不是僅止於音樂演奏或只為表演, 這當中有多少待挖掘卻永遠也挖掘不完的人文思想, 藝術, 文化等等. 彈琴也是向內發現自己本性的最好道器. 人在靜態中能見水裡一切.

2/17/2018
Practicing of Guanglin San Daxu: Jing Li The First, Sheng Cheng The Second 廣陵散 大序: 井里 第一 申誠 第二 練習




2/19/2018

連蠲出現在大序因時第四的倒數第三行(連蠲三, 勾四),及干時第五的倒數第二行(從]用連蠲在作)
連蠲按照最早的解釋, 我的理解就是連彈兩次蠲.
吳景略並沒有彈出雙蠲, 只彈單蠲.
管平湖在因時第四有彈出雙蠲, 但干時則只彈單蠲, 如果我沒有聽錯的話.

3/1/2018
奐三旨
Sorry, I don't know how to turn this video upside down. Just recorded with my tablet.


3/11/2018
Right now up to 正聲 呼幽第二
I put my practicing of the 換三指 clip (turned it upside down now) and 正聲取韓第一呼幽第二 clip together at this video below.
Each clip took many hours of practicing to just be able to play smoothly and to memorize the fingerings.
每一小段的練習, 都花了多個鐘頭, 才能彈的比較順. 並且能背下來.


3/13/2018

大七八剔鎖七 => 剔勾剔七絃 (按顧梅羹先生的解釋)
3/11的視屏裡我彈了一個剔鎖是先剔在鎖三聲共四聲, 按顧梅羹先生的意思, 應為剔勾剔三聲即可, 不須再先前加一個剔.

蠲弗一二剔滾二一  => 用蠲的方式彈出的效果(產生疊音), 再用剔彈出的效果(一個剌音)

3/21/2018

作氣  第四

一開始的泛音記號應該移到[名十二末六]之前

員婁 = 明以前至少有兩種彈法: 如 [烏絲欄指法] 稱食中名三指相度勾三條絃, 又或是:緩全扶宮商, 無名仍隨後勾過宮商不挹之, (不抑止).
宋 成玉磵 稱 抹勾兩絃作一聲. 如員婁四六(正是廣陵散作氣第四的兩絃) 勾四抹六全(如)一聲也.


4/17/2018 找出了孔子文小姐演奏的部分為:
開指
小序
止息第一段+第三段的第一句
大序 井里
申誠
順物
因時到最後倒數第三行中間直接跳到干時的最後兩行, 從[ 處到大序畢
徇物
衝冠
長虹
寒風
發怒第一句泛音, 接含光 + 投劍最後有一個大七八弗一至七蠲九聲虛起, 到最後一段泛音到正聲畢

如果想要彈短一點的廣陵散, 我覺得可參考孔子文小姐演奏的節縮版.


4/27/2018
藉由錄自己的練習, 是檢視自己的好方法. 剛能把譜背下來, 所以還是彈得很生澀.  已看見一些錯誤. 也看見許多可以改進的地方. 通常後半總是不如前半熟練. [長虹]的節奏還沒掌握好.  快節奏的地方還不夠放鬆. 繼續練...

It is a good way to exam myself by recording my own practicing. I am just at the stage of be able to play without looking at the music sheets, so still playing it very choppy. I see several mistakes and many parts can be improved. Usually the first half is smoother than the last half. The rhythm of [Chang Hong] does not handle well yet. Fast paced area is not relaxed enough. I will continue practicing.
https://youtu.be/2tqTFxWHMq8