Monday, September 26, 2016

十二律名由來 Names of the 12 Lu

十二律名由來

黃鐘C(HuángZhōng )Yellow Bell: 漢 班固 《白虎通·五行》:《月令》云,十一月律謂之黃鐘何?中和之色;鐘者,動也。言陽氣動於黃泉之下,動養萬物也。"Huang" came from "Huang Quan" which means the spring water under the yellow ground. "Zhong" means moving, active. Huang Zhong: the Yang energy moving under ground, which relates to the season of the 11th month in Chinese calendar.

大呂C#(Dà Lǚ)Great Regulator: 《白虎通·五行》:十二月律之謂之大呂何?大,大也;呂者,拒也。言陽氣欲出,陰不許也。呂之為言拒者,旅抑拒難之也。"Da" means big. "Lu" means resistance. "Da Lu" means a heavy resistance of the ying energy because the yang energy is coming out. This is related to the 12th month in Chinese calendar.

太簇D(Tài Cù)Great Budding: 取萬物簇生之意。乃六陽律之第二律。《白虎通·五行》:正月律謂之太蔟?太,亦大也;蔟者,湊也。言萬物始大,湊地而出也。"Tai" also means big. "Cu" means together. "Tai Cu" means all the life starting to grow together. This is related to the 1st month in Chinese calendar.

夾鐘D#(Jiá Zhōng)Husk Bell: 《白虎通·五行》: 二月律謂之夾鐘何?夾者,孚甲也,言萬物孚甲,種類分也。孚甲指草木種子分裂發芽。引申為萌發,萌生。孚,通“ 莩 ”,葉里白皮。甲,草木初生時所帶種子的皮殼。"Jia" means the husk of a seed when plants starting to grow. "Zhong" means moving, active, or bell. This is related to the 2nd month in Chinese calendar.

姑洗E(Gū Xiǎn)Purify Old: 六陽律之第三律。《白虎通·五行》:「三月謂之姑洗何?姑者故也,洗者鮮也,言萬物皆去故就其新,莫不鮮明也。」 "Gu" means old. "Xian" means fresh. "Gu Xian" means everything get rid of old and become new. This is related to the 3rd month in Chinese calendar.

仲呂F(Zhòng Lǚ)Mean Regulator:《白虎通·五行》 四月謂之仲呂何?言陽氣極將,彼故復中難之也。 高誘 注:“仲呂,四月也。陽在外,陰在中,所以呂中於陽助成功也,故曰仲呂。"Zhong" means middle or inside. "Zhong Lu" means yang is at outside and ying is at inside. This is related to the 4th month in Chinese calendar. "Zhong Lu" can also means the middle bell. If "Da Lu" is the big resistance of the Ying energy, Zhong Lu should be the smaller resistance of the Ying energy, which means the Yang energy is coming out more.

蕤賓F#(Ruí Bīn)Respect Below: 律以統氣類物……四曰蕤賓……位於午,在五月。為六陽律的第四律。蕤:草木的花下垂的样子。《白虎通·五行》五月謂之蕤賓,蕤者,下也;賓者,敬也。言陽氣上極,陰氣始,賓敬之也。"Rui" means flowers drooping. "Bin" means respects. "Rui Bin" means the yang energy is at the peak and the ying energy starts to grow,  respecting the ying energy. This is related to the 5th month in Chinese calendar.

林鐘G (Lín Zhōng)Forest Bell: 《白虎通·五行》六月謂之林鍾何?林者,眾也,萬物成熟,種類眾多。"Lin" means numerous, many kinds, all kinds of thing become mature. "Zhong" means moving, active, or the bell. "Lin Zhong" is related to the 6th month in Chinese calendar.

夷則G# (Yí Zé)Equalizing Rule:《白虎通·五行》七月謂之夷則何?夷,傷也;則,法也。言萬物始傷,被刑法也。"Yi" means becoming harmful. "Ze" means rules, laws. "Yi Ze" means everything starting to be hinder by natural phenomena. This is related to the 7 month in Chinese calendar.

南呂A (Nán Lǚ)Southern Regulator: 八月謂之南呂何?南者,任也,言陽氣尚有,任生薺麥也,故陰拒之也。"Nan" means rely on or let alone. In the 8th month of Chinese calendar, yang energy is getting less and less, therefore farmers growing water-chestnuts; caltrop and wheat these kind of crop. "Nan Lu" is related to the 8th month in Chinese calendar. "Nan Lu" also has the meaning of that the Ying energy resist the Yang energy. There is more Ying than Yang.

無射A# (Wú Yì)Tireless: 九月謂之無射何?射者,終也。言萬物隨陽而終,當複隨陰而起,無有終已也。"Wu" means without. "Yi" means ending. "Wu Yi" means everything goes to its end when yang energy is finished but will start growing with the yin energy. Therefore life is no ending. This is related to the 9th month in Chinese calendar.

應鐘B (Yìng Zhōng)Resonating Bell: 十月謂之應鐘何?應者,應也;鐘者,動也。言萬物應陽而動下藏也。"Ying" means comply with, responding. In the 10th month of a year in Chinese calendar, everything will start to comply with the hidden yang energy.

最早記載五度相生律方法的是《管子》。最早紀載十二律的是[呂氏春秋].

管仲(前725年-前645年)
吕不韋(?-前235年)

[管子]地員篇註解 (清)王紹蘭撰

呼音中宮
三施之地 深淺當五施之中 (施或有carry out 之意, 挖出)
試呼之其音 中宮下云 如牛鳴窖中也 月令中央土 其音宮 鄭注 屬土者 以其最濁... 呂氏春秋 季夏紀注 宮土也 位在中央 為之音主 時則訓注作五音之主是也...黃泉而臭... 其水黑而苦... 黃泉在地中... 淮南子天文訓高注云 黃鐘 鐘者聚也 陽氣聚於黃泉之下也 說文寅正月 陽氣動 去黃泉欲上出臭...謂氣也... 水泉必香也
宮謂之重 ... 宮者中也 君也 為四音之綱 其聲重厚... 其音含容厚重

呼音中羽
再施之地 較三又淺 試呼之其音 ... 如鳴馬在野也 月令孟冬之月 其音羽 鄭注屬水者 其音最清... 說文作霜水音也
羽者宇也物也 其聲低平掩映 自下而高 五音備成 ...羽者紓也 陰氣在上 陽氣在下 然則蕭蕭... 馬鳴曠野蕭蕭然 聲正低平掩映 自下而高有復柳然 聚而紓徐 氣肅上下...

呼音中徵
水黑而苦... 孟夏之月 其味苦 氣臭焦
凡聽徵如負豬 豕覺而駭... 聽一施之地 呼音中徵... 竊豬者 負而走 豬覺而駭 ... 其聲抑揚遞續 其音如事之緒而為迭... 徵者止也 陽氣止然 則豬豕方寢 負之而走 其覺而驚駭之聲

凡聽商如離群羊... 四施之地其音中商也... 商謂之敏... 其聲敏疾... 商者張也 陰氣開張 陽氣始降也 

凡聽角如雉登木 以鳴音疾以清...其聲迅疾園長... 角者躍也 陽氣動躍... 又如聞雷動躍

黃鐘者 陽氣踵(接著)黃泉而出也...鐘者種也 天之中數 五五為聲 聲上宮 五聲莫大焉 地之中數 六六為律 律有形有色...



管子五行 篇

昔黃帝以其緩急,作五聲,以政五鍾。令其五鍾,一曰青鍾,大音,二曰赤鍾,重心,三曰黃鍾,灑光,四曰景鍾,昧其明,五曰黑鍾,隱其常。五聲既調,然後作立五行,以正天時。五官以正人位,人與天調,然後天地之美生。

管子地員 篇中出現這一段確實有點奇怪


凡聽徵如負豬豕,覺而駭。凡聽羽如鳴馬在野,凡聽宮如牛鳴窌中,凡聽商如離群羊,凡聽角如雉登木以鳴,音疾以清。凡將起五音,凡首,先主一而三之。四開以合九九,以是生黃鐘小素之首以成宮,三分而益之以一,為百有八,為徵,不無有三分而去其乘,適足,以是生商,有三分而復於其所,以是成羽,有三分去其乘,適足,以是成角。

[吕氏春秋]季夏紀 音律: 黃鐘生林鐘林鐘生太蔟太蔟生南呂南呂生姑洗姑洗生應鐘應鐘生蕤賓蕤賓生大呂大呂生夷則夷則生夾鐘夾鐘生無射無射生仲呂。三分所生,益之一分以上生;三分所生,去其一分以下生。黃鐘、大呂、太蔟、夾鐘、姑洗、仲呂、蕤賓為,林鐘、夷則、南呂、無射、應鐘為


[管子]地員篇註解
黃鐘下生林鐘,林鐘上生太蔟... 無射下生仲呂. 每辰各自為宮 各有五聲十二管
以上生下 皆三生二 以下生上 皆三生四 陽下生陰 陰上生陽

六律六呂

黃鐘、太簇、姑洗、蕤賓、夷則、無射為六陽律(六律) Six Yang Lu

大呂、夾鍾、仲呂、林鍾、南呂、應鐘為六陰律(六呂) Six Yin Lu

Thursday, September 1, 2016

商山四皓與沖淡

商山四皓画像砖 南北朝 河南邓州学庄出土


商山四皓: 秦末隱士東園公 唐秉、夏黃公 崔廣、綺里季 吳實、甪里先生 周術四人,因避亂世而隱居商山,年皆八十餘歲,鬚眉皓白,世稱為「商山四皓」.

四位系秦始皇時博士官,輔佐朝政,協助秦始皇統一六國,實行郡縣制,統一文字和度量衡建有豐功偉績。只因始皇執政後期實行暴政,唯我獨尊,只聽順耳之言,不聞逆耳之聲,聽信李斯饞言,在秦始皇三十四年(公元前213年),先焚書,後坑儒,僅在咸陽市郊一次就坑殺了對己獨斷專行有意見的儒生460多人,引起了極大民憤。在“焚書坑儒”前後,四位博士官看到始皇如此暴虐,統治不會長久,於是先後逃離咸陽,遁入終南商洛深山。

商洛龜山位於現陝西省商洛市新城區南面. 是商州城南一大屏障,北有濤濤丹江流淌,南有楚水、乳水環繞東去,中間夾角形成半島,好似天降神龜橫臥大地,它東伸河中汲水,西臥“文筆山”綿亙秦嶺。牢牢支撐著古老而神奇的商州古城池,與城北金鳳山遙相呼應,崖岸三疊,故名三台。每山顏洗雨,嵐靄烘晴,三級翠浪,青蒼欲滴。憑城南眺,一如石相翡翠屏,參差疊架;一如武皇青玉案,高低錯設。又如雲中宮闕,島上樓台。明·撫治鄒嘉生賦詩云:“三台勝概聳江洲,秀色層分近接樓。每到晴空光欲滴,更逢雨過靚偏浮。壁奎互映塔聯峙,腹背交看水抱流。翠靄一屏凝帝祉,千秋萬代對神州。”古譽為“三台疊翠”,收錄入《商州八景》。
(http://baike.baidu.com/subview/64444/11190067.htm)

清 天聞閣琴譜 中的二十四琴品之第二為[冲淡], 其最後四句為
龜山之陽
岐山之嶺
孔思周情
方斯妙境

龜山當指商洛龜山, 在陝西省, 西安市東邊約三小時車程遠處, 是商山四皓遁隱處
岐山當指陝西省西安市以西約三小時車程之遠處, 是周王朝的發祥地.

商洛龜山以商山四皓的故事聞名. 琴品[冲淡]或許是以四位老人的淡泊名利, 輔賢棄惡之品德, 以及岐山為商王朝發祥地, 孔子始終以周禮為依歸的所冲以淡作為例子及標的.

[冲淡]之前八句
六氣俱涵
妙生於靜
心遠體清
絃調器泠(音玲, 清涼之意)
不疾不徐
亦散亦整
懲躁雪煩
和聲依永

六氣或許是指情志六氣, 好惡喜怒哀樂, 又或指風熱火濕寒躁, 都需要由"靜"來平衡.
身心清靜了, 琴器的音也調好了, 不慌不忙, 不慢不快, 渙散的把它整頓起來, (琴與人皆是).
煩躁都消除了之後就可以彈唱出和諧的聲音.

而心境如商山四皓, 如孔子思周禮, 如此妙境終究會出現.

冲有動詞的意味, "淡"是要冲出的境界與味道.


http://jsl641124.blog.163.com/blog/static/177025143201241114121374/