Monday, January 26, 2015

指法注意事項列舉一二 Attention one two Fingerings

散聲左大指放七徽到十徽間的絃上位置準備時大指需藏於掌底

Left thumb has to bend a little bit to hide under the palm when doing the "stand by" position (resting middle finger above 9th or 10th dot while the right hand is playing open string) and while left ring is doing Fan Yin, the harmonic sound.

泛聲若用名指, 掌藏大指. 有大指靠食指者. 單用大指時食指微曲覆蓋大指, 餘三指並直.

When left thumb is playing, left index has to bent a little bit and cover above the thumb, the rest three fingers keep straight and closed.

散中有泛, 泛中有散都要輕作.

If there is combination of harmonics and open string sounds in one phrase, the right hand has to maintain a gentle playing.

指分遠近: (唐代陳拙論古琴指法-- 姚丙炎編著) 所以有清濁, 離岳近聲清硬, 離岳遠聲濯柔
Varies Right Hand Playing Positions (from Tang dynasty Chen-zhuo's Theory of the Guqin Fingerings edited by Mr. Yao Bing-yian 1921-1983). In order to create varies strong/soft, clear and sharper/ rounded and gentle sound qualities.


Position right hand between Yue mountain (the bridge) and the 1st dot, closer to the 1st dot -- Such as, Index finger plucking in or out, or Thumb plucking in or out, or Thumb and middle finger together doing Cuo. 

Position right hand around the 1st dot -- Such as middle finger or ring finger plucking in or out. 

Position right hand around the 3rd dot -- When right two fingers doing two continuing sound, such as Juan (index pluck in the 2nd string, middle pluck in the 3rd string for example), Yuán Lóu (index pluck in the 6th and middle pluck in the 4th for example) , or index finger pluck in two strings (2nd and 3rd string for example). 

Position right hand around the 4th dot -- Such as S (Mǒ Tiāo Mǒ on one string), Shuāng Tán (middle finger out and index out on one string or two strings quickly), Lún (ring finger out, middle finger out and index out in sequence on one string), Lì (index out on two strings in sequence)

Position right hand in between the 5th and 6th dots -- Such as Fú (index plucking in several strings) and Gǔn (ring finger or middle finger plucking out several strings)

聲越簡越清亮, 聲越繁越柔圓 
The more simple sound the more clear and bright. The more busy sound, the more soft and rounded. (Closer to the bridge, sound will be more clear and brighter; closer to 7th hui, sound will be more softer and rounded.)

慢則重使, 快則輕使
The slower sound, heavier play. The faster sound, lightly play.

Saturday, January 24, 2015

再讀幽蘭之疑問


Jan 18 2015- Jan 23 2015 自2007年以來第五次研究[幽蘭]了

重新抄寫原文再把減字譜按新的理解重新配上

共12頁

這次的理解有很多變化

姚丙炎先生的唐代陳拙論古琴指法
以及查老的存見古琴指法輯覽
以及汪孟舒先生的烏絲欄指法釋
之所賜

很多以前不清楚之處現在有越見明白

但仍有以下問題:

問題一

急全扶與疾全扶之兩急疾字
不知是否有所不同
如果沒有不同
為什麼兩種寫法都有?
於是把所有疾全扶以及急全扶找出如下圖


四段每一段都有疾與急, 在想是否有強快與輕快之分?
似乎覺得分出強輕之分之後確實在琴曲詮釋上有更為觸動情緒

1/25/2015 去信姚公白先生 速得先生覆信曰: 

"如“疾”與“急”,在琴樂美學中通常可作同義理解,如嵇康《琴賦》有“疾而不速,留而不滯”、耶律楚材詩有“稍疾意不急,似遲聲不侷”之句,冷謙、徐青山都有緩急、遲速等論述,主要還是在節奏速度上加以強調,但在同一首琴曲中出現“疾全扶”、“急全扶”說明作曲者的確有其用意,隱含曲內,從文字上而言,疾、急雖都言速度,其義十分接近,如果一定要深究其區別的話,不妨用自己的理解,去詮釋兩者的快慢強弱之別,也不失為一解也。"

先生字字千金,如穫至寶. 稍一提點,便豁然開朗.




問題二:

"打"字並不是像現在所瞭解的右手名指入絃專用 左手也用. 且專指左大指擊絃.

左手大指的"掩" 似乎也用"打"來表示. 然而掩字出現過兩次: 大指當九掩武取聲, 
                                                                                   大指當十一掩五抑上至十取聲

還有"唈" 字也出現過兩次 大指當九十間唈文, 抑上至九取餘聲...
                                    大指當十一唈武, 抑上至十取聲

 查[烏絲欄琴譜] 說"唈"是左大指打琴以取聲. 

"打"字: 大指當十一打掐武起, 大指當九打徵, 大指當七八間打文取聲...等等.
是否"打"就代表"唈"了? 也就是"掩"的意思 ? 如果是同意為什麼不用掩字一貫表示? 

查字義, 唈有悲傷嘆氣的意思, 掩有突然來的攻擊的意思. 或許此兩字可代表不同的強弱與快慢. 
唈較慢長, 掩較快速短促. 而這兩字所做出的罨都是左大指打下去之後不馬上拿起, 唈可能停留的更久些.再抑上. 而"打"可能介於兩者之間. 速度力道都中庸. (1/25/2015 add this paragraph)

至於右手的打--

右食指也"打"過-- 舉大指屈無名當九十間案文武, 食指打文.
右無名打不是問題 -- 無名散打宮徵
中指也"打"過-- 食指半扶宮商, 中指即打宮.

然後食指"打"武跟食指"抅"武要做同是"抹"來理解嗎? 亦或是打與抅仍有細微的不同? 比如力道?

[烏絲欄指法釋]說在右手是食中名指通用 主要是指示:懸空落指打絃. 而也是三指通用, 但不是懸空落指而是提起向上... 令聲雄壯... 且分緩急. (1/25/2015 added this paragraph)

看來古人左右手落指輕重緩急還是分的很清楚的. 而非都一個力道. 基本有強中弱三種.

問題三:

蹴與蹙 是否有所區別? 為什麼也是在幽蘭中兩字都出現. 

蹴: 大指當九案徵羽卻轉徵羽食指節過指大指急蹴徵上至八掐徵起... (覺得像大撞)
      大指當八上一寸許案羽, 食指打羽大指却退至八還上蹴取聲..(覺得像反撞)
       以上兩句

--在陳拙論指法中是屬於'聲法"中"吟"的一法, 為急細往來, 所以可以理解有急細撞之意
另趙耶利以及烏絲欄都說:大指案一絃著面向上取聲.
查蹴字字意為用腳踢東西, 有一蹴即成, 一步登天之意

蹙: (第一段)
     大指兩節抑文上至八至七蹙取餘聲... (像走絃聲)
     大指當九案徵羽...緩全扶無名打徵,大指急蹙至九掐徵起, 無名疾退下十一...(像綽上之走絃後掐起)
     (第二段)
    大指獨案武...即蹙大指三上豆許取聲...(走絃聲)
    大指當五六間案文食指打文大指蹙至五下少許...(走絃聲)
    大指當五上一寸許案武食指挑武大指緩蹙上兩豆許取聲.(走絃聲)
  大指當六七間稍近七按文武... 大指無名不動無名打文急蹙大指上至六掐起取聲(走絃後掐起)
以上六句

蹙 -- 趙耶利說是"相就" 楊宗稷認為是撞.

"相就" 有主動靠近親近, 會面的意思. 另查蹙字字意為迫,促, 皺縮, 縮斂.

字我比較接受相就(走絃)之意而非撞(吟絃)之意.  

(1/26/2015 編輯過蹴與蹙的部份加了一些理解)


問題四:

再就是: 抅半扶是否為以勾做半扶還是先勾一聲再半扶? 姚丙炎先生在唐代陳拙論古琴指法中為"擘歷"做的註說是以擘為歷不是擘後再歷, 讓我聯想抅半扶當也是以勾做半扶(即連勾兩絃比如四五), 而不是勾後再半扶, 

Thursday, January 15, 2015

猱 A kind of vibrato, Náo

How to do the technique of Náo? I quote some explanation from different time period. Hope that will help myself and the readers to understand.

One description from Song Dynasty -- When the sound is crated, moving the left finger up then down, as spring thunder and lightning, no hesitate. If a quick up and down happen simultaneously while right hand is plucking, that is called Huàn 喚. 

從上述讓我覺得猱倒像是撞了. from the description above,  it is more like Zhuàng 撞.


明初[太古遺音]又稱[太音大全集]
One description from Ming dynasty -- Using monkey climbing up a tree as an image. The technique is that left finger moving up a little bit after the sound is created, then move back quickly. It is like a round pearl. 

"欲上不上, 其勢逐逐, 重按指於分寸, 欲去來之神速."
Means that the up and down movement happen pretty quickly. And the finger has to press down solid and the distance of moving up and down is only a short distance.

為了瞭解猴子怎麼爬樹的, 找了這支影片, 從2'25" -2'30" 可以看到.
Because I want to understand how does monkey climb a tree, so found this video and from 2'25" -2'30" one can see a little bit. 



Two of the Qing Dynasty descriptions -- Using Yín 吟 to compare, that 吟取韻致, 猱取古勁. 吟輕清而小, 猱重大蒼古. Yin's movement is smaller and lighter. Nao is heavier, bigger and stronger.


One of the 20 th century's description -- Has mentioned the quantity, three times of the up and down movement. And point out that 往下用力往上不用力 using force at the downward movement and not using force at the upward movement.

總結以上我覺得結合蔣文勳與楊宗稷的說法配合猴子爬上樹的一振一振的自然動作與力度, 猱的作法就很明確了. 
In conclude the Jiang Wen-xun's explanation of the Qing dynasty and Yang Zong-ji's explanation of the 20th century, and knowing how a monkey climbing up a tree, the technique of Nao is much clear to me. 

Wednesday, January 14, 2015

間勾 Jiān gōu


 
唐朝對間勾的解釋很明確, 就是勾打(或抹勾)相鄰的兩條絃
Tang Dynasty, the description of Jiān gōu is pretty simple, which is middle in (say 2nd string) then ring finger in (say 1st string). Or sometimes, index in (say 2nd string) then the middle in (say 1st string).

以上兩圖為幽蘭譜部份
The earliest survived qin tablature [Yo Lan] (elegant orchid) has this Jiān gōu  finger technique.

到了宋解釋變得有點複雜, 其實也還是勾打相鄰兩條絃. 但似乎把前後情況也拿進來說. 比如有在間勾完後做挑. 有大小間勾之分.元代有加挑. 
Song dynasy, a little more complicated. different kind of Jiān gōu shows up. Small Jiān gōu  and Big Jiān gōu  and included the technique Da Yuan 打圓.

明初[太古遺音],又稱[太音大全集], 1413年之前成書
 說若不打圓就不是間勾. 並且也是在勾打完後有挑. 而打圓是挑打連續三次... 找了明代有間勾的琴曲來看了-- 神奇秘譜的廣陵散,揚名第十五,果然是有"泛起...名四打四, 大二挑六", 上兩音三作了小間勾, 那個三作就是打圓了, 然後做小間勾(勾五打四再挑六). 如果是這樣就瞭解了
Ming dynasty, I checked Sheng Qi Mi Pu 神奇秘譜, the piece Guang Ling San 廣陵散 has this Jiān gōu technique after a Da Yuan technique. So now I am more clear that when there is a Da Yuan + Jiān gōu, we just need to add a gou (middle in) in between the two notes that the da yuan was indicated, then finished with a tiao (index out).

如果從唐幽蘭譜的間勾來看確實有間勾完下一個音是挑, 但也有不是挑的. 如果就"間勾"這兩字的字面上意思其實也滿好瞭解的, 就是在某兩音之間要做勾.  而打(或抹) 也都像是勾的姿勢. 我想還是按照唐的說法, 做勾打相臨的兩絃便是. 而勾,一定是比打,在高一絃位.