Tuesday, January 15, 2019

About Guang Ling San (Song of Guang Ling)

神奇秘譜的廣陵散一開始的介紹說按照[琴史] 所說的, 晉書記載的廣陵散, 是嵇康曾經遊歷會稽, 住宿在華陽亭. "引琴而彈, 夜兮忽有客詣(音意, 至的意思)之. 稱是古人, 與康共談音律. 辭致清辨. 因索琴而彈之. 為廣陵散曲. 聲調絕倫. 遂以授康. 仍誓不傳人"....然後因為政治及個性因素, 小人(鍾會)讒言,司馬懿聽信鍾會, 把康下詔入獄. 康將刑於東市. 顧視日影, 索琴彈之曰: 昔袁孝巳(巳應為尼, 康之甥)嘗從吾學廣陵散. 吾每靳(音近, 吝嗇不肯給予之意)之. 廣陵散如今絕矣... 而袁孝尼曾偷聽偷學, 得三十三拍(前三十三段), 後續成八拍(從"會止息意"到最後的八段). 似乎是說最後八段是袁孝尼自己弄出來的?...

"廣陵散曲, 世有二譜" 臞仙的神奇秘譜內所收的是"隋宮中所收之譜, 隋亡而入於唐, 唐亡流落於民間者有年. 至宋高宗建炎間, 復入於御府. 僅九百三十七年矣. 予以此譜為正. 故取之."

沈草農先生(1892-1972)在他的"漫談廣陵散" 一文中說:
在[太平廣記*, 文士傳]裡邊有一段記載: 嵇康臨死, 顏色不變, 謂其兄曰: "向以琴來否?" 兄曰: "已至" 康取調之, 為[太平引]. 曲成, 嘆息曰: 太平引絕於今日耶?
認為嵇康臨死前彈的並不是廣陵散, 而是太平引. 而太平引現今確實無法看到有哪一的譜本有收錄.

*《太平廣記》,是宋代李昉等人編著的大型類書,基本上是一部按类编纂的古代小说總集,凡五百卷。

吾查"太平引"在東皋禪師(1639-1696)的和文注音琴譜中有此曲, 然其註說第一段為賀東山所作, 第二段為辛棄疾(1140-1207)所作. 且其辭似乎為情詩, 當是與嵇康臨死前所彈的太平引非同曲.



吾又對"隋宮中所收之譜" 有所聯想, 此曲恐也是court music. 宮廷樂, 因其段落標題, 小序, 正聲, 亂聲, 等, 頗像有設計過的樂章之結構.



以上兩圖出於[存見古琴曲譜輯覽] page 總258, 259
神奇秘譜的廣陵散為隋唐間之譜的論見
七修續稿
以及到底廣陵散是否為嵇康所作還是廣陵當地漢代到晉代民間的流行曲

查阜西似乎同意金世宗時期(1161-1189)的中議大夫張崇所說的廣陵散並不是指曹魏的忠臣於廣陵一地散絕, 而是嵇康用民間聶政刺韓王的故事來抒發自己對司馬政權的不滿. 

認為此曲是嵇康所作的說法出於唐朝的大臣韓皋. 嵇康為了避禍才說此曲是神授. (不過我還是對張崇這句:"意其叔夜以廣陵名曲"的名是指流行有名, 還是命名的名, 仍不確定 ). 而耶律楚才認為張崇的說法是似而非. 耶律楚才認為嵇康將第二絃調成同一絃一樣的音高就代表了臣犯君, 指的就是司馬氏父子的以下犯上. 嵇康就是藉此提醒當時的曹魏國君.  看來不管是指毌丘儉還是指聶政刺韓王, 以上這些人都還是認為廣陵散是嵇康作的.

聶政刺韓王這個故事本身就已有兩個版本. 一說是聶政被嚴仲子顧了要殺韓相俠累(見史記), 一說是聶政自己為父報仇(見琴操)

聶政者,軹深井里人也。殺人避仇,與母、姊如齊,以屠為事。

久之,濮陽嚴仲子事韓哀侯,與韓相俠累有卻。嚴仲子恐誅,亡去,遊求人可以報俠累者。至齊,齊人或言聶政勇敢士也,避仇隱於屠者之閒。嚴仲子至門請,數反,然後具酒自暢聶政母前。酒酣,嚴仲子奉黃金百溢,前為聶政母壽。聶政驚怪其厚,固謝嚴仲子。嚴仲子固進,而聶政謝曰:“臣幸有老母,家貧,客遊以為狗屠,可以旦夕得甘毳以養親。親供養備,不敢當仲子之賜。”嚴仲子闢人,因為聶政言曰:“臣有仇,而行遊諸侯眾矣;然至齊,竊聞足下義甚高,故進百金者,將用為大人粗糲之費,得以交足下之驩,豈敢以有求望邪!”聶政曰:“臣所以降志辱身居市井屠者,徒幸以養老母;老母在,政身未敢以許人也。”嚴仲子固讓,聶政竟不肯受也。然嚴仲子卒備賓主之禮而去。

久之,聶政母死。既已葬,除服,聶政曰:“嗟乎!政乃市井之人,鼓刀以屠;而嚴仲子乃諸侯之卿相也,不遠千里,枉車騎而交臣。臣之所以待之,至淺鮮矣,未有大功可以稱者,而嚴仲子奉百金為親壽,我雖不受,然是者徒深知政也。夫賢者以感忿睚眥之意,而親信窮僻之人,而政獨安得嘿然而已乎!且前日要政,政徒以老母;老母今以天年終,政將為知己者用。”乃遂西至濮陽,見嚴仲子曰:“前日所以不許仲子者,徒以親在;今不幸而母以天年終。仲子所欲報仇者為誰?請得從事焉!”嚴仲子具告曰:“臣之仇韓相俠累,俠累又韓君之季父也,宗族盛多,居處兵衛甚設,臣欲使人刺之,(眾)終莫能就。今足下幸而不棄,請益其車騎壯士可為足下輔翼者。”聶政曰:“韓之與衛,相去中閒不甚遠,今殺人之相,相又國君之親,此其勢不可以多人,多人不能生得失,生得失則語洩,語洩是韓舉國而與仲子為讎,豈不殆哉!”遂謝車騎人徒,聶政乃辭獨行。

杖劍至韓,韓相俠累方坐府上,持兵戟而衛侍者甚眾。聶政直入,上階刺殺俠累,左右大亂。聶政大呼,所擊殺者數十人,因自皮面決眼,自屠出腸,遂以死。

韓取聶政屍暴於市,購問莫知誰子。於是韓(購)縣[購]之,有能言殺相俠累者予千金。久之莫知也。

政姊榮聞人有刺殺韓相者,賊不得,國不知其名姓,暴其屍而縣之千金,乃於邑曰:“其是吾弟與?嗟乎,嚴仲子知吾弟!”立起,如韓,之市,而死者果政也,伏尸哭極哀,曰:“是軹深井裡所謂聶政者也。”市行者諸眾人皆曰:“此人暴虐吾國相,王縣購其名姓千金,夫人不聞與?何敢來識之也?”榮應之曰:“聞之。然政所以蒙污辱自棄於市販之閒者,為老母幸無恙,妾未嫁也。親既以天年下世,妾已嫁夫,嚴仲子乃察舉吾弟困污之中而交之,澤厚矣,可柰何!士固為知己者死,今乃以妾尚在之故,重自刑以絕從,妾其柰何畏歿身之誅,終滅賢弟之名!”大驚韓市人。乃大呼天者三,卒於邑悲哀而死政之旁。

晉、楚、齊、衛聞之,皆曰:“非獨政能也,乃其姊亦烈女也。鄉使政誠知其姊無濡忍之志,不重暴骸之難,必絕險千里以列其名,姊弟俱僇於韓市者,亦未必敢以身許嚴仲子也。嚴仲子亦可謂知人能得士矣!”

琴操(傳為東漢蔡邕所撰)說"聶政刺韓王"是聶政作的. 


琴史(成書1084年, 宋朱長文所作) 說: 杜夔, 字公良 (三國時代河南人, 杜夔擅長音律,除歌舞外,絲竹八音皆能,其時他集各家之所長,教授講集,製作樂器,對恢復古樂有莫大貢獻。曹魏黃初年間, 220-226,任太樂令,協律都尉) ...妙於廣陵散, 嵇康就其子孟, 求得此聲. <-- 我本人是對此說很有感. 嵇康學廣陵散於杜夔之子杜孟, 杜夔精通於雅樂, 廣陵散於我確實頗有雅樂的感覺, 因此我個人認為此說很有可能.


再附上耶律楚才的[湛然居士集]內他所寫的"彈廣陵散終日而成因賦詩五十韵 并序"

About Guang Ling San (Song of Guang Ling), Who was the composer? 

There are several possibilities. One is that it was composed by Ji Kang (223–262) who was one of the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove. Another is that it was a folk song during the Han to Jin dynasties (around the 1st to 3rd centuries). There is also a rumor that this piece was originally called Nie Zheng Assassinate The King of Han 聶政刺韓王 and was composed by Nie Zheng (see Qin Cao).

What are the relations between Ji Kang and the Song of Guang Ling?

The Tang dynasty minister Han Gao wrote something about Guang Ling San (Song of Guang Ling) that Guanqiu Jian 毌丘儉 (died 16 March 255), a military general of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period (220-280),  and some other officers loyal to the sovereign of Cao Wei were killed by Sima Yi (who was also a military general, government official and regent of the state of Weiand his son at the Guang Ling area where is now Yangzho of Jiangsu province.  Ji Kang wrote this song with anger and indignation and named this melody with the name of the place to refer to those loyal officers were becoming extinct in the Guang Ling area. However, In order to avoid trouble, he told people that he was taught how to play the Guang Ling San by a ghost spirit. The Chinese character "San" 散, in here therefore means the extinction of the Cao Wei. But many still believe, such as Mr. 沈草農, that San means "song", as in Chinese 散, 引, 操, 弄, the characters to indicate "melody" or "song" but not the meaning of extinction.

Also, later during the reign of Emperor Shizong of Jin 金世宗 (1161-1189), a civil official Zhang Chong 張崇 wrote a preface to the Song of Guang Ling, saying that judging by the titles of each section, this song is about the story of the assassin Nie Zheng (died in 397 BCE) hired by the minister of Han in The Warring States Period (475–221 BC), Yian Zhongzi 嚴仲子 to kill the prime minister Xia Lei 俠累. So this piece is not related to Guanqiu Jian and others killed by Sima family at Yangzho. Although Ji Kang composed and named this piece Song of Guang Ling, he was using the story of Nie Zheng to hide his true intention towards the terrible behavior of Sima family.

However, Yelü Chucai (1190-1244) did not fully agree with Zhang Chong. Yelu Chucai's ( a statesman of Khitan ethnicity with royal family lineage to the Liao Dynasty) argument was that the second string, which was indicated as minister, was tuned lower to match the pitch of the first string, which was indicated as prince or king, that shows that the minister arrogated the rights. Ji Kang was trying to warn the king of Wei by using the story of Nie Zheng's assassination of the king of Han. 

No matter what, they all seemed to believe that Guang Ling San was composed by Ji Kang.

By the way, there are two versions of the story of the assassin Nie Zheng. One is from 史記 (The Records of the Grand Historian, written in 91 BCthat Nie Zheng was hired by Yian Zhongzi to kill the prime minister Xia Lei. The other one was from East Han [Qin Cao] by Cai Yong (133-192) that Nie Zheng assassinated the king of Han for his own revenge for his father, a sword maker, who was killed by the king of Han because the sword maker couldn't finish making the sword on time for the king. 

Other than the story of the assassin Nie Zheng, the book Qin Shi (History of the qin, published in 1084) by Song dynasty Zhu Chang-wen mentioned that Ji Kang learned the Song of Guang Ling from Du Meng whose father Du Kui was a court musician of Cao Wei. Du Kui was very good at playing the Song of Guang Ling. He also was an expert of Yayue,  (classical music performed at the royal court). I have a strong feeling towards this history, and I do feel that the structure of Guang Ling San from SQMP does give me a feeling that this piece was from court music. There are 開指 (opening fingers), 小序 (small prelude), 大序 (big prelude), 正聲(the main sound, or the main melody), 亂聲 (the finishing sound or the finishing melody) and 後序 (the epilogue).  From what I have studied so far, I believe that Guang Ling San was from Sui and Tang dynasty court music, and this court music was taken from folk music of the Guang Ling area. 

Regarding the story of Ji Kang playing the Guang Ling San before his execution, and claiming that the Guang Ling San was extinct from the moment of his death, I won't put too many words here. Some believed that the qin piece that Ji Kang played before his death was not Guang Ling San, but a piece called Tai Ping Yin 太平引, please see Mr. Sheng Caonong's (1892-1972) article [Free Talk about Guang Ling San 漫談廣陵散]. Mr. Sheng quoted this story from the Song dynasty book [Taipin Guangji] that when Ji Kang was going to be executed, he remained calm and asked his brother if the qin he requested had arrived or not, and his brother said yes. Ji Kang then took the qin and tuned it and played the Tai Ping Yin. After he finished playing, he sighed and claimed that; "this melody Tai Ping Yin is extinct from today." 太平廣記: 嵇康臨死, 顏色不變, 謂其兄曰: "向以琴來否?" 兄曰: "已至" 康取調之, 為[太平引]. 曲成, 嘆息曰: 太平引絕於今日耶

2019-01-12 to 15

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Please also read my Guang Ling San journal of study

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