"廣陵散曲, 世有二譜" 臞仙的神奇秘譜內所收的是"隋宮中所收之譜, 隋亡而入於唐, 唐亡流落於民間者有年. 至宋高宗建炎間, 復入於御府. 僅九百三十七年矣. 予以此譜為正. 故取之."
在[太平廣記*, 文士傳]裡邊有一段記載: 嵇康臨死, 顏色不變, 謂其兄曰: "向以琴來否?" 兄曰: "已至" 康取調之, 為[太平引]. 曲成, 嘆息曰: 太平引絕於今日耶?
認為嵇康臨死前彈的並不是廣陵散, 而是太平引. 而太平引現今確實無法看到有哪一的譜本有收錄.
吾查"太平引"在東皋禪師(1639-1696)的和文注音琴譜中有此曲, 然其註說第一段為賀東山所作, 第二段為辛棄疾(1140-1207)所作. 且其辭似乎為情詩, 當是與嵇康臨死前所彈的太平引非同曲.
吾又對"隋宮中所收之譜" 有所聯想, 此曲恐也是court music. 宮廷樂, 因其段落標題, 小序, 正聲, 亂聲, 等, 頗像有設計過的樂章之結構.
認為此曲是嵇康所作的說法出於唐朝的大臣韓皋. 嵇康為了避禍才說此曲是神授. (不過我還是對張崇這句:"意其叔夜以廣陵名曲"的名是指流行有名, 還是命名的名, 仍不確定 ). 而耶律楚才認為張崇的說法是似而非. 耶律楚才認為嵇康將第二絃調成同一絃一樣的音高就代表了臣犯君, 指的就是司馬氏父子的以下犯上. 嵇康就是藉此提醒當時的曹魏國君. 看來不管是指毌丘儉還是指聶政刺韓王, 以上這些人都還是認為廣陵散是嵇康作的.
聶政刺韓王這個故事本身就已有兩個版本. 一說是聶政被嚴仲子顧了要殺韓相俠累(見史記), 一說是聶政自己為父報仇(見琴操)
琴史(成書1084年, 宋朱長文所作) 說: 杜夔, 字公良 (三國時代河南人, 杜夔擅長音律，除歌舞外，絲竹八音皆能，其時他集各家之所長，教授講集，製作樂器，對恢復古樂有莫大貢獻。曹魏黃初年間, 220-226，任太樂令，協律都尉) ...妙於廣陵散, 嵇康就其子孟, 求得此聲. <-- 我本人是對此說很有感. 嵇康學廣陵散於杜夔之子杜孟, 杜夔精通於雅樂, 廣陵散於我確實頗有雅樂的感覺, 因此我個人認為此說很有可能.
About Guang Ling San (Song of Guang Ling), Who was the composer?
There are several possibilities. One is that it was composed by Ji Kang (223–262) who was one of the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove. Another is that it was a folk song during the Han to Jin dynasties (around the 1st to 3rd centuries). There is also a rumor that this piece was originally called Nie Zheng Assassinate The King of Han 聶政刺韓王 and was composed by Nie Zheng (see Qin Cao).
What are the relations between Ji Kang and the Song of Guang Ling?
The Tang dynasty minister Han Gao wrote something about Guang Ling San (Song of Guang Ling) that Guanqiu Jian 毌丘儉 (died 16 March 255), a military general of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period (220-280), and some other officers loyal to the sovereign of Cao Wei were killed by Sima Yi (who was also a military general, government official and regent of the state of Wei) and his son at the Guang Ling area where is now Yangzho of Jiangsu province. Ji Kang wrote this song with anger and indignation and named this melody with the name of the place to refer to those loyal officers were becoming extinct in the Guang Ling area. However, In order to avoid trouble, he told people that he was taught how to play the Guang Ling San by a ghost spirit. The Chinese character "San" 散, in here therefore means the extinction of the Cao Wei. But many still believe, such as Mr. 沈草農, that San means "song", as in Chinese 散, 引, 操, 弄, the characters to indicate "melody" or "song" but not the meaning of extinction.
Also, later during the reign of Emperor Shizong of Jin 金世宗 (1161-1189), a civil official Zhang Chong 張崇 wrote a preface to the Song of Guang Ling, saying that judging by the titles of each section, this song is about the story of the assassin Nie Zheng (died in 397 BCE) hired by the minister of Han in The Warring States Period (475–221 BC), Yian Zhongzi 嚴仲子 to kill the prime minister Xia Lei 俠累. So this piece is not related to Guanqiu Jian and others killed by Sima family at Yangzho. Although Ji Kang composed and named this piece Song of Guang Ling, he was using the story of Nie Zheng to hide his true intention towards the terrible behavior of Sima family.
However, Yelü Chucai (1190-1244) did not fully agree with Zhang Chong. Yelu Chucai's ( a statesman of Khitan ethnicity with royal family lineage to the Liao Dynasty) argument was that the second string, which was indicated as minister, was tuned lower to match the pitch of the first string, which was indicated as prince or king, that shows that the minister arrogated the rights. Ji Kang was trying to warn the king of Wei by using the story of Nie Zheng's assassination of the king of Han.
No matter what, they all seemed to believe that Guang Ling San was composed by Ji Kang.
By the way, there are two versions of the story of the assassin Nie Zheng. One is from 史記 (The Records of the Grand Historian, written in 91 BC) that Nie Zheng was hired by Yian Zhongzi to kill the prime minister Xia Lei. The other one was from East Han [Qin Cao] by Cai Yong (133-192) that Nie Zheng assassinated the king of Han for his own revenge for his father, a sword maker, who was killed by the king of Han because the sword maker couldn't finish making the sword on time for the king.
Other than the story of the assassin Nie Zheng, the book Qin Shi (History of the qin, published in 1084) by Song dynasty Zhu Chang-wen mentioned that Ji Kang learned the Song of Guang Ling from Du Meng whose father Du Kui was a court musician of Cao Wei. Du Kui was very good at playing the Song of Guang Ling. He also was an expert of Yayue, (classical music performed at the royal court). I have a strong feeling towards this history, and I do feel that the structure of Guang Ling San from SQMP does give me a feeling that this piece was from court music. There are 開指 (opening fingers), 小序 (small prelude), 大序 (big prelude), 正聲(the main sound, or the main melody), 亂聲 (the finishing sound or the finishing melody) and 後序 (the epilogue). From what I have studied so far, I believe that Guang Ling San was from Sui and Tang dynasty court music, and this court music was taken from folk music of the Guang Ling area.
2019-01-12 to 15
Please also read my Guang Ling San journal of study