Thursday, April 5, 2018

Music and the Moral Psyche in Early Chinese Thought



Saturday, March 31, 2018 at Bard College 9:30 am - 4:30 pm, I attended the Conference - Harmony And Power: The Role of Music in the Cultivation of the Literati in Ancient China

The First talk in the morning section was presented by Prof. Erica Brindley Penn State (Asian Studies, History, Philosophy)
Comments: Susan Blake, Bard College (Philosophy)

Her talk was:
Beautifying the Emotions: Music and the Moral Psyche in Early Chinese Thought

Prof. Brindly thinks that 儒 Confucius is a kind of like Rabbi. (Rabbi: a Jewish scholar or teacher, especially one who studies or teaches Jewish law.)... And Confucius believed that music was the best tool for becoming the idealized type of person, Junzi, the noble person. Junzi cultivate themselves with music... Confucius has set the path for intellectual culture today.

What music offers human beings? a moral education program for individual...



Prof. Brindly translates the word 知音(Zhi Yin, knowing sound) as "bosom buddy" -- Music was a way to bond deeply with or achieve communion with another being who would become a friend...

Please listen Prof. Brindley's talk with Prof. Susan Blake's comments and one question from Prof. François Picard towards the end at 49'47". (This recording is for personal study use only, please do not share. Thanks)







1993年郭店楚墓發現的竹簡裡有一篇[性自命出] 原文如下:

凡人雖有性,心亡奠志,待物而後作,待悅而後行,待習而後奠。喜怒哀悲之氣,性也。及其見於外,則物取之也。性自命出,命自天降。道始於情,情生於性。始者近情,終者近義。(Human nature comes from Heaven's command - Human nature emerges from Heavenly Decree; Heavenly Decree is sent down from Heaven... Dao is the path we should following...we have to learn to be in touch with the Dao, what was the right thing to do... Dao beginning with Raw Emotions and raw emotion is coming from human nature. He who is beginning on this dao is near to the raw emotion, and he who is starting his ending on this dao is near Yi -correctness... Music is the tool to train the emotions...  25'30" in the video ) 知情者能出之,知義者能內(入)之。
  好惡,性也。所好所惡,物也。善不善性也,所善所不善,勢也。凡性為主,物取之也。金石之有聲,弗扣 不鳴,人之雖有性,心弗取不出。凡心有志也,無與不可, 性不可獨行,猶口之不可獨言也。
  牛生而長,雁生而伸,其性使然, 人而學或使之也。凡物無不異也者,剛之柱也,剛取之也。柔之約[也],柔取之也。四海之內,其性一也。其用心各異,教使然也。
  凡性,或動之,或逆之,或交之,或厲之,或出之,或養之,或長之。凡動性者,物也;逆性者,悅也;交性者,故也;厲性者,義也;出性者,勢也;養性者,習也;長性者,道也。
  凡見者之謂物,快於己者之謂悅,物之勢者之謂勢,有為也之謂故。義也者,群善之蕝也。習也者,有以習其性也。
  道者,群物之道。凡道,心術為主。道四術,唯人道為可道也。其三術者,道之而已。
  《詩》、《書》、《禮》、《樂》,其始出皆生於人。 《詩》,有為為之也;《書》,有為言之也;《禮》、《樂》,有為舉之也。
  聖人比其類而論會之,觀其先後,而逆訓之,體其義而節度之,理其情而出入之,然後復以教。教,所以生德於中者也。
  禮作於情,或興之也,當事因方而製之。其先後之舍(序)則義道也。或舍(序)為之節則也。
  致容貌,所以度節也。君子美其情, 貴其義,善其節,好其容,樂其道,悅其教,是以敬焉。拜,所以為?與,其諛度也。幣帛,所以為信與證也,其詞義道也。
  笑,禮之淺澤也。樂,禮之深澤也。凡聲,其出於情也信,然後其入撥人之心也厚。聞笑聲,則鮮如也斯喜。聞歌謠,則陶如也斯奮。聽琴瑟之聲,則悸如也斯嘆觀《賚》、《武》,則齊如也斯作。觀《韶》、《夏》,則勉如也斯儉。詠思而動心,==如也,其居次也舊(久),其反善復始也慎(32'30" in the video) 其出入也順,司(始)其德也。鄭衛之樂,則非其聽而從之也。凡古樂龍(動)心,益(淫)樂龍(動)指(嗜),皆教其人者也。 《賚》、《武》樂取,《韶》、《夏》樂情。
  凡至樂必悲,哭亦悲,皆至其情也。哀、樂,其性情相近也,是故其心不遠。哭之動心也,浸殺,其央戀戀如也,戚然以終。樂之動心也,濬深鬰陶,其央則流如也悲,悠然以思。
  凡憂,思而後悲;凡樂,思而後忻。凡思之用,心為甚。嘆,思之方也,其聲變則 其心變,其心變則其聲亦然。吟遊(流)哀也,噪遊(流)樂也,啾遊(流)聲[也],嘔遊(流)心也。
  喜斯陶,陶斯奮,奮斯詠,詠斯猶,猶斯作。作,喜之終也。慍斯憂,憂斯戚,戚斯嘆,嘆斯闢,闢斯通。通,慍之終也。
  凡學者隸[求]其心為難。從其所為,近得之矣,不如以樂之速也。唯[雖]能其事,不能其心,不貴。求其心有為也,弗得之矣。人之不能以為(偽)也,可知也。其過十舉,其心必在焉,察其見者,情安失哉?察,義之方也。義,敬之方也。敬,物之節也。篤,仁之方也。仁,性之方也。性或生之。忠,信之方也。信,情之方也。情出於性。
  愛類七,唯性愛為近仁。智類五,唯義道為近忠。惡類三,唯惡不仁為近義。所為道者四,唯人道為可道也。凡用心之躁者,思為甚。用智之疾者,患為甚。用情之至者,哀樂為甚。用身之弁者,悅為甚。用力之盡者,利為甚。目之好色,耳之樂聲,鬰陶之氣也,人不難為之死。
  有其為人之節節如也,不有夫柬柬之心則採。有其為人之柬柬如也,不有夫恆怡之志則縵。人之巧言利詞者,不有夫詘詘之心則流。人之悅然可與和安者,不有夫奮作之情則侮。有其為人之快如也,弗牧不可。有其為人之淵如也,弗輔不足。凡人偽為可惡也。偽斯吝矣,吝斯慮矣,慮斯莫與之結矣。慎,仁之方也。然而其過不惡。速,謀之方也,有過則咎。人不慎斯有過,信矣。
  凡人情為可悅也。苟以其情,唯(雖)過不惡;不以其情,唯(雖)難不貴。苟有其情,唯(雖)未之為,斯人信之矣。
  未言而信,有美情者也。未教而民恆,性善者也。未賞而民勸,含福者也。未型(刑)而民畏,有心畏者也。賤而民貴之,有德者也。貧而民聚焉,有道者也。
  獨處而樂,有內(入)禮者也。惡之而不可非者,達於義者也。非之而不可惡者,篤於仁者也。
  行之不過,知道者也。聞道反上,上交者也。聞道反下,下交者也。聞道反己,修身者也。上交近事君,下交得眾近從政,修身近至仁。
  同方而交,以道者也。不同方而 交, 以 ?者[也]。同悅而交,以德者也。不同悅而交,以猷者也。門內之治,欲其逸也。門外之治,欲其製也。
  凡悅人勿吝也,身必從之,言及則明舉之而毋偽。凡交毋央,必使有末。凡於徵毋畏,毋獨言。獨處則習父兄之所樂。苟毋大害,少枉內(入)之可也,已則勿複言也。

  凡憂患之事欲任,樂事欲後。身欲靜而毋==,慮欲淵而毋拔,行欲勇而必至,貌欲壯而毋拔,[心]欲柔齊而泊,喜欲智而亡末,樂欲懌而有志,憂欲儉而毋惛(悶),怒欲盈而毋希,進欲遜而毋巧,退欲循而毋輕,欲皆度而毋偽。君子執志必有夫光光之心,出言必有夫柬柬之信,賓客之禮必有夫齊齊之容,祭祀之禮必有夫齊齊之敬,居喪必有夫戀戀之哀。君子身以為主心。

Starting at 49'47" Prof. François Picard asked two questions. The first one is about the relationship between music and words, but this part Prof. Brindley did not answer. The 2nd question is about Li 禮, that Li is not about harmony but to distinguish heaven and living being.  My understanding is that Prof. Brindley thinks that Li is to distinguish everything and Yue 樂 (music) is to harmonize everything as Xunzi 荀子 say: 故樂者審一以定和者也,比物以飾節者也,合奏以成文者也;足以率一道,足以治萬變。...樂合同,禮別異,禮樂之統,管乎人心矣。 

2 comments:

  1. A qin student wrote to me about his comment after listen this talk:

    ...The story relates how a person playing Qin witnessed the praying mantis eating an insect and the experience of death came through the music to the listener. This to me..., could indicate the state of the person playing maybe influences the listener more than what is being played. So a person playing, whose nature is harmonized, would be of the best help to others to find that harmony.

    Another part that struck me was that harmonizing our nature comes not from extinguishing our emotions, but by proper expression. Seems this would really help humanity in this day and age of suppression and aggression.

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  2. "性自命出,命自天降。道始於情,情生於性。始者近情,終者近義。"-- 我越來越覺得, 認識自己的本性非常重要, 這個認識是需要靠靜坐, 冥想, 甚至彈琴,等靜態的活動來觀察自我, 才能夠越看越細, 找出自己為何喜怒哀樂, 找出甚麼適合自己, 甚麼不適合自己... 這種找是先從最原始的情緒(raw emotion)去開始分辨, 然後用"禮" (proper manner)去把每一個原始情緒提升到更高的一個和諧層次-- 義(correctness). 我很感謝聽了這場演講. 讓我對孔子的"禮樂" 思想更清楚了. 這個思想弄懂了, 對彈琴其實有很大的幫助. 你會知道為什麼而彈琴, 會知道要把琴彈到一個甚麼境界. 甚至會影響你對其他事物的判斷力與行為. 琴是道器, 是沒錯的. 如果你把彈琴當修身養性, 而不是炫技.

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