Thursday, March 2, 2017

JULLIEN -- In Praise of Blandness

https://vk.com/doc38326782_437028020?hash=5742dc3065e8238280&dl=dbec1ef96b0669b077

作者在中國史書裡要尋找是他自己的哲學祖先尚未考慮到的“思想的可能性”
並期望可以從該類型的哲學大令狀提出問題的重鑄。他要的是更清楚的視角.

序幕

"平淡"的定義是當你才察覺到時, 他就已經出現在每個角落. no sooner do you identify it than it begins to appear at every turn.

平淡: 是當各種不同的味道不再各自對立, 而是完全充滿在一起. 提供所有的東西一個沒有分別分化的基礎. 所以是很寶貴的. 它的中性呈現出在一個中心內在的潛力. 在這個階段, 真實不再被部分掩蓋也不會太明顯呈現. 實的變散的, 開放給變化.
Blandness: that phase when different flavors no longer stand in opposition to each other but, rather, abide within plenitude. It provides access to the undifferentiated foundation of all things and so is valuable to us; its neutrality manifests the potential inherent in the Center. At this stage, the real is no longer blocked in partial and too obvious manifestations; the concrete becomes discrete, open to transformation.

它獨讓我們同時擁有所有的性向然後在任何一個情況下傳召出適當的某個個性.
...  for it alone allows us to possess all aptitudes simultaneously and to summon the appropriate one in any given situation.

The blandness of things evokes in us an inner detachment. But this quality is also a virtue, especially in our relations with others, because it guarantees authenticity. It must also lie at the root of our personality, for it alone allows us to possess all aptitudes simultaneously and to summon the appropriate one in any given situation.

"淡" 可以喚起我們從內在跳脫出來, 這是一個高度理想的德行. 特別是在人與人之間的關係, 因為淡可以保證真實性. 並且它也顯示了人格所在. 淡本身可以讓我們同時擁有所有的性向, 然後在任一情況中喚起適當的一個性向. -- 朱利安, 淡之頌. 

讓我想到"君子之交淡如水." Let me thought about the Chinese saying: The relationships between gentlemen is as light as water.

"the bland invites us to trace it back to the "inexhaustible" source of that which constantly unfolds without ever allowing itself to be reduced to a concrete manifestation or completely apprehended by the senses: that which transcends all particular actualizations and remains rich in virtuality."

"平淡" 讓我們回到取之不竭用之不盡的源頭, 而這源頭是不斷地展開,完全無須讓它自己減少任何具體表現, 或著完全地被感觀認知: 它超越了所有實際存現的部分以及仍然保持很豐富的尚未出現但可能存在的部分. 
And I just received Hongmei 's comments that she quoted this famous poem from Tang dynasty poet Bai Juyi's [The Qin at Night] 白居易[夜琴]: 入耳澹無味,愜心潛有情 which I think many Chinese probably can understand the feeling of "dan" (light or flavorless) that Bai Juyi was trying to say. Bai describe the feeling of listening the qin at night is like the sound into the ear is very light without flavor, (but it is) comfortable and with hidden emotion.


知音 Zhi Yin literally means "Knowing the sound", and it also symbolize "good friends" "friends who knows each other well". It is hard to find Zhi Yin in the guqin field because the special "dan" (lightness) quality of the guqin that is not easy to appreciate. And one has to know Chinese culture, philosophy and view of aesthetics in order to understand the hidden flavor. So if one say someone so is his or her "Zhi Yin" that is a high value of friendship.

"Blandness is the color of the whole, as it appears to the eyes of those who look farthest into the distance; it makes us experience the world and existence itself beyond the narrow confines of the individual's point of view —in their true dimension. If blandness is the flavor of sagehood — its only possible flavor — this is not because the Sage has grown resigned or disenchanted but because blandness is the most basic and authentic of flavors: that of the "root" of things." <-- read here makes me think about what I had read before-->
今讀到: "五色勝則相掩,然必厚益之,猶不能渾然無跡,惟黑一染不可辨矣。故黑者,萬事之府也,斂藏之道也。帝王之道黑,故能容保無疆;聖人之心黑,故能容會萬理。蓋含英采、韜精明、養元氣、蓄天機,皆黑之道也,故曰「惟玄催默」。玄,黑色也;默,黑象也。《書》稱舜曰「玄德升聞」,《老子》曰「知其白,守其黑」,得黑之精者也。故外著而不可掩,皆道之淺者也。雖然,儒道內黑而外白,黑為體,白為用;老氏內白而外黑,白安身,黑善世。"
Today I read this Ming dynasty ideologist 呂坤 wrote about that Black color contains every color. "聖人之心黑" the heart of a supreme man is black." Ha... it does not mean eval heart but a heart that can tolerate everything. 這兒就不是說邪惡的黑心, 而是包容所有叫黑心. but "儒道內黑而外白" Confucianism is black inside, but white outside" not sure what is "white" indicate. 老氏內白而外黑, Laozi is white inside, but black outside. 白色是指純白, 無, 虛,嗎?makes me think 大智若愚, the greatest wisdom is act like knowing nothing and claim nothing. Still not quite sure...


Blandness is the color of the whole <-- so is it black color or white color?

孔子問子桑雽曰:「吾再逐於魯,伐樹於宋,削跡於衛,窮於商、周,圍於陳、蔡之間。吾犯此數患,親交益疏,徒友益散,何與?」

The Daoists dramatize this in a way that is deliberately polemical and loaded with irony. In the following passage, Zhuangzi presents a Confucius who, disappointed in life, has gone to seek an old sage (Daoist, of course) to whom he can recount his woes:

Twice I was expelled from the state of Lu. In Song, they cut down the tree under which I was sitting. I am no longer allowed to set foot in the state of Wei, and I was reduced to extremes in Shang and Zhou. I was trapped between the countries of Chen and Cai. And then, on top of these misfortunes, my parents and my relatives have less and less to do with me, and my disciples and friends are abandoning me more and more. Why has all this happened to me?

子桑雽曰:「子獨不聞假人之亡與?林回棄千金之璧,負赤子而趨。或曰:『為其布與?赤子之布寡矣。為其累與?赤子之累多矣。棄千金之璧,負赤子而趨,何也?』林回曰:『彼以利合,此以天屬也。』夫以利合者,迫窮禍患害相棄也;以天屬者,迫窮禍患害相收也。夫相收之與相棄亦遠矣。且君子之交淡若水,小人之交甘若醴;君子淡以親,小人甘以絕。彼無故以合者,則無故以離。」

To Confucius's tearful laments the old Daoist responds with an anecdote. A man from Jia, fleeing from his country in ruins, chose to rid himself of a jade disk worth a thousand pounds of gold so that he could carry his newborn child on his back. This, he reasoned, makes sense because what binds the infant to the man is a natural link. "All who join together merely for reasons of common interest reject one another when oppression, despair, ill fortune, grief, or disaster strikes." But confronted with the same bad luck, those bound by a natural link only grow closer. In effect (and here the argument becomes especially persuasive), those not bound together because of common interest will never have any reason to break those bonds. That is why it is said: 

Dealings with the Gentleman are as bland as water, while dealings with the small man are as pleasing to the taste as new wine. The blandness of the Gentleman solidifies his friendships; but the vulgar man, because of his sweetness, destroys them.


禮記表記:
子曰:「君子不以辭盡人。故天下有道,則行有枝葉;天下無道,則辭有枝葉。是故君子於有喪者之側,不能賻焉,則不問其所費;於有病者之側,不能饋焉,則不問其所欲;有客,不能館,則不問其所舍。故君子之接如水,小人之接如醴;君子淡以成,小人甘以壞。《小雅》曰:『盜言孔甘,亂是用餤。』」

When the Gentleman finds himself in the company of a man engaged in observing the funerary rites of one of his parents, if he is not able to help him with a gift, he does not ask about the cost. When he is in the company of a man who has an invalid at home, if he is not able to give him something to help feed that person, he does not ask him what he would like. Finally, when someone comes to visit, if he cannot offer him his hospitality, he does not ask where the visitor plans to spend the night. Relations with the Gentleman are like water, those of the small man like new wine. The Gentleman is bland, but that is why he is able to bring things about; the small man is pleasant [to the taste], but that is why he ends up only destroying things.

盜言: 小人所說的話. 孔:很. 甘:好聽.
亂:亂象. 餤: 音tán/ㄊㄢˊ,進食,引申為增進或加劇。

The most intensive sound is not the most intense:

by overwhelming our senses, by manifesting itself exclusively and fully as a sensual phenomenon, sound delivered to its fullest extent leaves us with nothing to anticipate, nothing to look forward to. Our very being thus finds itself filled to the brim. In contrast, the least fully rendered sounds are the most promising, in that they have not been fully expressed, externalized, by the instrument in question, whether zither string or voice. And it is thus that they manage to sustain (as formulated in this lovely expression) a "lingering" or a "leftover" tone (jiyin). Such sounds are all the more able to extend and deepen themselves in the minds of their hearers for having not been definitively realized; and so they retain something more for later deployment and keep something secret and virtual within. In short, they remain heavy with promise. As noted by the commentator, music such as this stays on in the spirit and "is not forgotten."
大音希聲 不是當下的感官刺激. 是餘後給人們更多的感受力. 更多的想像空間.
...If, then, the leftover tone and its lingering resonance are preferable to the full exploitation and immediate consumption of sound, it is because they bring us — through perception — to a subtler and more fundamental grasp of reality.

"The great harmonic — sound at its most subtle."
蘇軾 [十 八 大 阿 羅 漢 頌 ]
第十六羅漢
盆 花 浮 紅 , 篆 煙 繚 青 。 無 問 無 答 , 如 意 自 橫 。 點 瑟 既 希 , 昭 琴 不 鼓 。 此 間 有 曲 , 可 歌 可 舞 。
The flowers in the vase emerge — red, Incense smoke rises in pearl-gray curls. Neither a question nor an answer, The ruyi laid obliquely on the ground. Dian allowed the sound of his zither to fade away, Zhao refrained from playing his zither: In all this there is a melody — That can be sung, and can be danced.
論語 先進
子路、曾皙、冉有、公西華侍坐。子曰:「以吾一日長乎爾,毋吾以也。居則曰:「不吾知也!』如或知爾,則何以哉?」子路率爾而對曰:「千乘之國,攝乎大國之間,加之以師旅,因之以饑饉;由也為之,比及三年,可使有勇,且知方也。」夫子哂之。「求!爾何如?」對曰:「方六七十,如五六十,求也為之,比及三年,可使足民。如其禮樂,以俟君子。」「赤!爾何如?」對曰:「非曰能之,願學焉。宗廟之事,如會同,端章甫,願為小相焉。」「點!爾何如?」鼓瑟希,鏗爾,舍瑟而作。對曰:「異乎三子者之撰。」子曰:「何傷乎?亦各言其志也。」曰:「莫春者,春服既成。冠者五六人,童子六七人,浴乎沂,風乎舞雩,詠而歸。」
Near the end of spring, dressed in our springtime clothing, I and five or six companions and six or seven young boys would swim in the Yi River, take pleasure in the wind on the Terrace of the Rain Dances, and then return home together, singing.
And the Master concludes this passage with a deep sigh: "Dian, I am with you!"
夫子喟然歎曰:「吾與點也!」三子者出,曾皙後。曾皙曰:「夫三子者之言何如?」子曰:「亦各言其志也已矣。」曰:「夫子何哂由也?」曰:「為國以禮,其言不讓,是故哂之。」「唯求則非邦也與?」「安見方六七十如五六十而非邦也者?」「唯赤則非邦也與?」「宗廟會同,非諸侯而何?赤也為之小,孰能為之大?」

曾點善鼓瑟

 It is the internal sense of musicality that matters (as opposed to its material, and thus external, production). 音樂的內在感覺是最重要的. 

Sakyamuni contents himself with plucking a flower and his disciple smiles at him in response

帶經堂詩話清言類 

拈花微笑之妙 the direct transmission of wisdom without words

“拈花微笑”也作“拈花一笑”,佛教語,禪宗以心傳心的第一宗公案(典故),包含兩層意思:一是對禪理有了透徹的理解,二是彼此默契、心神領會、心意相通、心心相印。形容師徒之間的默契、心靈相通。

"the feeling for a necessary overcoming of the materiality of things, the experience of meaning that is never emphatic, but is elusive — always retreating further into the distance." -- Jullien- In Praise of Blandness
That is about the aesthetics of poetry in Chinese literature but not including the "fu" style 
不強調一定要完全把一個物件充分解釋清楚 保持距離 避開絕對的清清楚楚 然後有美 如同文學中的詩詞, 但不同於賦, 賦的形式是剛好相反的, 要盡可能表達細緻完善. 在陸機的[文賦] 中提到對於賦的美學
"或清虛以婉約 
每除煩以去濫 
闕大羮之遺味 
同朱絃之清汜 
雖一唱而三嘆 
固既雅而不艶"
Jullien's translation:
Or if [your expression] is pure and empty, and elegantly contained; 
And you've eliminated all that is complicated or tends toward overflowing —
This is what will yield the left-over flavor of the great ceremonial broth,
And what will resemble the limpid tones shed by vermilion cords:
Even if it is true that "one sings alone and three join in harmony,"
Such [writing] may well be solemn and noble, but it will lack charm"

艷在賦的形式不是貶抑的

It is then that poetry is called on to capture the invisible by means of the perceptible, to evoke emptiness through the use of images. And it is from this time, too, that blandness would be less likely to connote the strict aridity of abstract meaning and would become more closely associated with an atmosphere imbuing the poem as a whole: the feeling for a necessary overcoming of the materiality of things, the experience of meaning that is never emphatic, but is elusive — always retreating further into the distance.

必須克服事物的物質性的感覺 ,意義的經驗是永遠不會強調,但是是可望而不可及 - 總是進一步退縮到遠處

At the very heart of this critical discourse, the ever-increasing appreciation of "flavor" (wei) would in time transform blandness from a flaw into a positive quality. In the major works of literary criticism, references to flavor are quite common and display two principal characteristics. First, literary flavor is most often conceived of in relation to the authenticity of feeling. In particular, it is associated with the poetic evocation and consequent "symbolization" (xing) of a feature of the landscape seized on by the emotions.? Second, literary flavor is most appreciated for a quality that is as intangible as it is inexhaustible; it "flies" unceasingly "in all directions," as light and diffuse as the wind. And, like the wind, it envelops us without being seen:

When it is deep, the writing is both implicit and rich:
A lingering flavor enrobes(包裝, 覆蓋) it completely.

鐘嶸的[詩品]與劉勰的[文心雕龍] 都對文簡意賅表示褒揚.
http://ctext.org/wenxin-diaolong/yin-xiu/zh
叔夜之《贈行》,嗣宗之《詠懷》,境玄思澹,而獨得乎優閑。士衡之疏放,彭澤之豪逸,心密語澄,而俱適乎壯采。

阮籍:詠懷詩八十二首之第一
夜中不能寐。起坐彈鳴琴。薄帷鑒明月。清風吹我襟。孤鴻號外野。翔鳥鳴北林。徘徊將何見。憂思獨傷心。

[詩品]

故詩有三義焉:一曰興,二曰比,三曰賦。文已盡而義有餘,興也;因物喻志,
比也;直書其事,寓言寫物,賦也。宏斯三義,酌而用之,幹之以風力,潤之以丹彩
,使味之者無極,聞之者動心,是詩之至也。
With this, we see "lingering flavor" begin to take on literary significance.
This quality allows the reader to "savor without growing weary" of the taste; 
our experience of this flavor " is without limit."

皎然 詩式 皎然唐朝詩僧

淡俗

  此道如夏姬當壚,似盪而貞;採吳、楚之風,然俗而正。古歌曰:
「華陰山頭百尺井,下有流泉徹骨冷。可憐女子來照影,不照其馀照斜領。」

This manner [of writing] is like Xia Ji, [the young girl] behind the counter of the inn. 
She appears to be depraved but is, in fact, chaste.
Here, the styles of Wu and Chu have been adopted. Although the style is common, 
it is not lacking in righteousness. As the ancient poem says:
At the summit of Huayin Mountain, There is a well one hundred feet deep.
Beneath it runs a spring, So cold that it pierces to the bone.
How sweet the young girl, Who has just gazed at her image in its waters!
Nothing is reflected there, Except for the curve of her throat.

司空圖二十四詩品
壹 雄渾 Force-Incipiency
  大用外腓,真體內充。反虛入渾,積健為雄。具備萬物,橫絕太空。
  荒荒油雲,寥寥長風。超以象外,得其環中。持之非強,來之無窮。

 沖淡 Harmony-Blandness
  素處以默,妙機其微。飲之太和,獨鶴與飛。猶之惠風,荏苒在衣。
  閱音修篁,美曰載歸。遇之匪深,即之愈希。脫有形似,握手已違。


Given over, by its nature, to silence,
It is one with the secret of things.
It quaffs of the Supreme Harmony;
Then, alone, with the goose, it takes flight.
Like the spring breeze
That lightly brushes his robes:
Sound — sensed through the bamboo,
The beauty that one then takes away as it returns.
You meet it, without going deep.
Search for it, and it grows ever more tenuous.
If, at last, it does take on form,
You've barely grasped its hand, and already it is gone.
--------------------
We recall, too, that the first critic to praise poetic blandness,
Sikong Tu, placed his poem "Harmony-Blandness" second in his
series of twenty-four; "Force-Incipiency" was first, since in its
wake blandness was thought to reveal itself. In other words, faced
with the harmonizing power of blandness, there is first a surge of
vitality: when the trace of the brush does not tend toward a fading
away, but presses forward with the violence of an explosion —
when it is still bursting with vehemence and fire, virtually crying
out with passion and life.
--------------------
《清夜琴興》·白居易
月出鳥棲盡,寂然坐空林。
是時心境閒,可以彈素琴。
清泠由木性,恬澹隨人心。
心積和平氣,木應正始音。
響餘群動息,曲罷秋夜深。
正聲感元化,天地清沉沉。
The moon rises, birds nest, it is done; Silently sitting in an empty forest.
At this moment, the world of mind is tranquil, And I can play my unadorned zither.
Clarity and cold emerge from the nature of the woods,
Calm and detachment in tune with man's heart...
The sound lingers on, movement stops;
The melody ends: an autumn night deepens.
最後兩句Jullien 沒翻出來
梅堯臣
作詩無古今 唯造平淡難
Jullien: In composing a poem, in the present as in the past,
Only the creation of the plain and bland is hard.


凡文章先華麗而後平淡,如四時之序,方春則華麗,夏則茂實,秋冬則收斂,
若外枯中膏者是也,蓋華麗茂實已在其中矣。


我: 彈琴亦如是, 要入無形必先有形. 要收斂必先茂實.

"子言古淡有真味,太羹豈須調以齏" - 歐陽修 文忠集 卷五 再和聖俞見答〈皇祐二年〉
The blandness of the ancients harbors true flavor:
What need is there to season the great broth?


"近詩尤古硬,咀嚼苦難嘬。初如食橄欖,真味久愈在"
水穀夜行寄子美聖俞〈慶歷四年〉 歐陽修 文忠集 卷二
Of late, his poems have taken on a certain ancient stringency,
Harsh and hard to chew;
It is, at first, like eating olives,
Whose flavor grows more pronounced with time.


宛陵集卷二十八
I compose my verses in keeping with my basic nature,
Attempting to attain the plain and bland.
My words are harsh: neither rounded nor softened,
And sting the mouth even more than water chestnuts or lotus seeds.

Blandness is not merely a path to inner cultivation; it is also the "principle of things": 淡, 不僅是內在修養, 也是事物的主要原則
宛陵集 卷24, 答中道小疾見寄 宋 梅堯臣
Poetry in its essence gives voice to our affective nature; 詩本道性情
There is little point in shouting so loud! 不須大厥聲
Once you realize that the principle of things consists of the
plain and bland, 方聞理平淡
From dawn to dusk, you will find yourself in the Unending
Light. 昏曉在淵明

清麗閑肆平淡 (梅聖俞墓志銘)
limpid and lovely, detached and unfettered

林和靖先生诗集序
其順物玩情為之詩則平淡邃美 咏之令人忘百事也
其辭主乎靜正 不主乎刺譏
然後知其趣向博遠 寄適於詩爾
The poetry he writes when his spirit joins with the flow of things 
and takes joy in his own feelings is plain and bland, profound and complete: 
one forgets, as one reads it, all worldly cares. 
His writing achieves the utmost in tranquillity and correctness, 
and never criticizes his subject. 
It is thus that one becomes aware that his taste is broad and far-reaching 
and that he expresses his harmonious relation with the world through his poetry.

詩品集解

In the region south of Jiangling [that is, outside the realm of Chinese
cultural dominance], people are generally content to enjoy the pleasurable
aspects of food, and that's all. In the case of vinegar, which is,
of course, sour, they go no further than its sourness; in the case of
brine, which is, of course, very salty, they go no further than its saltiness.
In contrast, true Chinese stop themselves from continuing to
eat as soon as their hunger has been sated; they understand that [if
they continue] they would then pass up a certain kind of plenitude
that lies beyond the sour and the salty. (As for the people of Jiangling,
as we might suspect, they are used to doing things their way
and do not perceive this distinction.)

When it is close at hand without being superficial, and when it is farreaching
without knowing any boundaries — only then can we speak
of the excellence of beyond-resonance.

與李生論詩書
作者:司空圖 唐
文之難而詩尢難,古今之喻多矣。愚以為辨味而後可以言詩也。江嶺之南,凡足資於適口者,若醯非不酸也,止於酸而已。若鹺非不鹹也,止於鹹而已。中華之人所以充饑而遽輟者,知其鹹酸之外,醇美者有所乏耳。彼江嶺之人,習之而不辨也宜哉。詩貫六義,則諷諭抑揚,渟蓄淵雅,皆在其中矣。然直致所得,以格自奇。前輩諸集,亦不專工於此,矧其下者耶?王右丞、韋蘇州,澄澹精致,格在其中,豈妨於道學哉?賈閬仙誠有警句,然視其全篇,意思殊餒。大抵附於蹇澀,方可致才。亦為體之不備也,矧其下者哉?噫!近而不浮,遠而不盡,然後可以言韻外之致耳。愚竊嚐自負,既久而愈覺缺然。然得於早春,則有「草嫩侵沙長,冰輕著雨銷」。又「人家寒食月。花影午時天」。(上句雲「隔穀見雞犬,山苗接楚田」)又「雨微吟足思,花落夢無憀」。又「夜短猿悲減,風和鵲喜靈。」得於山中,則有「坡暖冬生筍,鬆涼夏健人。」又「川明虹照雨,樹密烏衝人」。得於江南,則有「日帶潮聲晚,煙和楚色秋」。(一作「戌鼓和潮暗,船燈照島幽」。本集同)又「曲塘春盡雨,方響夜深船」。得於塞上,則有」馬色經寒慘,雕聲帶晚饑。」得於喪亂,則有「驊騮思故第,嬰鵡失佳人」。又「鯨鯢人海涸,魑魅棘林幽」。得於道官,則有「棋聲花院閉,幡影石壇高」。得於夏景,則有「地涼清鶴夢,林靜肅僧儀」。得於佛寺,則有「鬆日明金像,苔龕響木魚」。又「解吟僧亦俗,愛舞鶴終卑」。得於郊園,則有「暖景雞聲美,微風蝶影繁」。又「遠陂春草滲,猶有水禽飛」。(上句雲「綠樹連村暗,黃花入麥稀」)得於樂府,則有「晚妝留拜月,春睡更生香」。得於寂寥,則有「孤螢出荒池,落葉穿破屋」。得於愜適,則有「客來當意愜,花發遇歌成」。雖庶幾不濱於淺涸,亦未廢作者之譏訶也。七言云:「逃難人多分隙地,放生鹿大出寒林。」又「得劍乍如添健仆,亡書久似憶良朋」。又「孤嶼池痕春漲滿,小欄花韻午晴初」。又「五更惆悵回孤枕,猶自殘燈照落花」。(上句雲「故國春歸未有涯,小樓欄檻別人家」)又「殷勤元旦日,欹午又明年」。(上句雲「甲子今重數,生涯隻自憐」)皆不拘於一概也。蓋絕句之作,本於詣極。此外千變萬狀,不知所以神而自神也。豈容易哉?足下之詩,時輩固有難色。儻複以全美為上,即知味外之旨矣。勉旃。司空表聖再拜。

The composition of the quatrain presupposes the most finely honed abilities, for all of the variations and transformations it sets in motion operate under a spiritual process that is spontaneous and beyond our ken.

《鹿柴》-王維
空山不見人,
但聞人語響。
返景入深林,
復照青苔上。
Deer Enclosure
mountain — empty / not — notice — person
only — hear / of man — voice — echo
return — ray / penetrate — depths — forest
again — shine / green — moss — above

李東陽 
poetry values the transmission of meaning, and the transmission of meaning values what is far and not what is close by, what is bland and not what is pronounced: that which is remarkable and close by is easy to know, whereas it is difficult to recognize that which is bland and far away.
詩貴意,意貴遠不貴近,貴淡不貴濃。濃而近者易識,淡而遠者難知。

This morning the prefect's office is cold;
Suddenly I think of a wanderer in the mountains:
Is he gathering bracken at the base of the ravine
So that he can boil his white stones when he returns home?
I would like to take him a gourd of wine,
To cheer him on this gloomy eve...
But fallen leaves cover the empty mountains:
Could I find his traces there?
《寄全椒山中道士》
年代: 唐 作者: 韋應物
今朝郡齋冷,忽念山中客。
澗底束荊薪,歸來煮白石。
欲持一瓢酒,遠慰風雨夕。

落葉滿空山,何處尋行跡。

白石:道家有“煮五石英法”,在斋戒后的农历九月九日,将薤白、黑芝麻、白蜜、山泉水和白石英放进锅里煮。

師友詩傳錄
Question: According to the ancients, one must acquire the ability to
distinguish among flavors before beginning to be able to talk about
poetry. Might I ask you on what basis one can distinguish among
poetic flavors?
Answer: According to Sikong Tu of the Tang, he who would
begin to study poetry must recognize "the flavor that is beyond flavor,"
an expression often cited by Su Dongpo that has since had
much currency. If one desires to study poems by those such as Tao
Yuanming, Wang Wei, Wei Yingwu, or Liu Zongyuan, it behooves
him to seek true flavor in the plain and bland. At first, one does not
perceive it, but the longer one savors it, the more enduring its

impression. It is similar to what occurred when Lu Hongjian tasted
the flavor of the water of different springs of the world, and he
accorded first place to the waters of the great river of Zhongling.
The flavor of its waters is bland but, in fact, it is not bland, it is the
best flavor in the world, with which the flavor of no other food can
compare. Naturally, "those who can appreciate the flavor of food"
are already quite "rare," but those who can appreciate the flavor of
water are even more so.

蘇東坡送參寥子
欲令詩語妙,無厭空且靜。靜故了群動,空故納萬境。閱世走人間,觀身臥雲嶺。鹹酸雜眾好,中有至味永。--蘇東坡
"The outside is bland, but the inside is lush; one only need move
from the disappointing margin of flavor to the plenitude contained
in the center. Two lines at the end of a poem by the same
author, Su Dongpo, reveal with even greater clarity what is meant
here by "centrality":
Salty and sour, both are part of what we enjoy;
But the center harbors the supreme flavor, one that never
fades away."

To experience the world and walk among men,

To see oneself resting on cloudy peaks.

Blandness does not demand that we look for another meaning or embark on a quest for a hidden mystery. Rather, it invites us to free ourselves from the differentiating nature of meaning and of all particular and marked flavors. Rather than setting up tension, the blandness of the margin delivers us from all constraining obsessions. It creates ease. It unburdens consciousness, for this transcending is not directed and does not lead toward anything other than itself.

不真空论-晋-僧肇

http://wenxian.fanren8.com/04/05/2.htm
夫至虚无生者,盖是般若玄鉴之妙趣,有物之宗极者也。

人間有味是清歡
In the world of men, there is flavor:

It is limpidity that one can love.

浣溪沙 (蘇軾)

元豐七年十二月二十四日,從泗洲劉倩叔游南山。
細雨斜風作曉寒,淡煙疏柳媚晴灘。入淮清洛漸漫漫。
雪沫乳花浮午盞,蓼茸蒿筍試春盤。人間有味是清歡。

http://nccuir.lib.nccu.edu.tw/bitstream/140.119/35589/7/51020207.pdf
外枯而中膏,似澹而實美
質而實綺癯而實腴 (癯=瘦)
Liu Zongyuan's poems are inferior to those of Tao Yuanming but
superior to those of Wei Yingwu. Han Yu's poems excel in their
vigor of feeling and audacity of expression but are less successful in
achieving a serene and reserved profundity. The reason why we value
the dry and bland is that, if the outside is sere(乾燥枯萎), the inside will be lush(豐富的);

and apparent blandness contains beauty.
典故 ─ 蘇軾 《與蘇轍書》 
全文 
東坡先生謫居儋耳,置家羅浮之下,獨與幼子過負擔渡海。葺茅竹而居之,日啖薯芋,而華屋玉食之念不存於胸中。平生無所嗜好,以圖史為園囿,文章為鼓吹,至此亦皆罷去。獨喜為詩,精深華妙,不見老人衰憊之氣。 
是時,轍亦遷海康,書來告曰:“古之詩人有擬古之作矣,未有追和古人者也。追和古人,則始於東坡。吾於詩人,無所甚好,獨好淵明之詩。淵明作詩不多,然其詩質而實綺,臒而實腴。 自曹、劉、鮑、謝、李、杜諸人皆莫及也。吾前後和其詩凡百數十篇,至其得意,自謂不甚愧淵明。 今將集而幷錄之,以遺後之君子。子為我志之。然吾於淵明,豈獨好其詩也哉?如其為人,實有感焉。淵明臨終,疏告儼等:‘吾少而窮苦,每以家貧,東西游走。性剛才拙,與物多忤,自量為己必貽俗患,黽勉辭世,使汝等幼而飢寒。’淵明此語,蓋實錄也。吾今真有此病而不蚤自知,半生出仕,以犯世患,此所以深服淵明,欲以晚節師範其萬一也。” 

嗟夫!淵明不肯為五斗米一束帶見鄉里小人,而子瞻出仕三十餘年,為獄吏所折困,終不能悛,以陷於大難,乃欲以桑榆之末景,自托於淵明,其誰肯信之?雖然,子瞻之仕,其出入進退,猶可考也。後之君子其必有以處之矣。孔子曰:“述而不作,信而好古,竊比於我老彭。”孟子曰:“曾子、子思同道。”區區之跡,蓋未足以論士也。 
轍少而無師,子瞻既冠而學成,先君命轍師焉。子瞻嘗稱轍詩有古人之風,自以為不若也。然自其斥居東坡,其學日進,沛然如川之方至。其詩比杜子美、李太白為有餘,遂與淵明比。轍雖馳驟従之,常出其後,其和淵明,轍繼之者,亦一二焉。 
-------------------
韓愈 [送高闲上人序]
苟可以寓其巧智,使機應於心,不挫於氣,則神完而守固,雖外物至,不膠於心。...
往時張旭善草書,不治他技。喜怒窘窮,憂悲、愉佚、怨恨、思慕、酣醉、無聊、不平,有動於心,必於草書焉發之觀於物,見山水崖谷,鳥獸蟲魚,草木之花實,日月列星,風雨水火,雷霆霹靂,歌舞戰鬥,天地事物之變,可喜可愕,一寓於書。故旭之書,變動猶鬼神,不可端倪,以此終其身而名後世。今閒之於草書,有旭之心哉!不得其心而逐其跡,未見其能旭也。為旭有道,利害必明,無遺錙銖,情炎於中,利欲鬥進,有得有喪,勃然不釋,然後一決於書,而後旭可幾也。
今閒師浮屠氏,一死生,解外膠。是其為心,必泊然無所起;其於世,必淡然無所嗜。泊與淡相遭;頹墮委靡;潰敗不可收拾;則其於書得無象之然乎!然吾聞浮屠人善幻,多技能,閒如通其術,則吾不能知矣。
And once again the art of calligraphy serves as the favored
ground for demonstration. If, this author tells us, the script of
as great a master of the Tang as Zhang Xu is so remarkable, it is
because it occupied him utterly and because he projected therein
his deepest and most varied feelings: "his joy or his anger, his
anguish, torments, happiness, resentment, longing — his drunkenness,
too — along with his boredom and even his rebellion."3 By
the same token, far from cutting himself off from the spectacle of
the world, he expressed it in all its intensity and violent contrasts:
the tranquillity of nature and the wildness of warfare, all living
species, mountains and flowers, insects and stars. His writing
contained "the wind and the rain," "water and fire," "thunder,
lightning, song and dance," and transformed itself unceasingly in
its encounter with life's infinite dynamism. The profusion of
things, the power of phenomena, all that thrills or provokes tears
— the great calligrapher breathed them into his brush strokes, so
much so that "one loses sight of their end" and his work overflows

with vitality.
The path that leads to this art, then, is that of passion — of
attachment. The conditions for embarking on this road are
"possessing a clear awareness of what conforms to our interest and
what harms it" and "allowing nothing to escape our attention": "that
an emotion burns within, and the desire inspired by this interest is
ready to confront anything in order to move forward; and, whether
we win or lose, we feel ourselves to be carried away and completely
engaged." In this way, when this emotional engagement, taken to
the extreme, discharges itself in writing, "the ideal is not far." Such
is the tension that electrifies the Master's calligraphy and lends it
its powerful fascination. Born of intoxication and pathos, it incites us
to exultation.
In contrast, there is someone else (Gao Xian, to whom this
letter is written) who, good Buddhist that he is, "holds life and
death to be equal" and "freed himself from all exterior attachments":
"His mind is so serene that no longer does anything arise
within; and the world, in his eyes, is so bland that it no longer
has the power to ignite any desires." "Blandness and detachment"
have thus destroyed his personality and plunged it into lethargy.
The individual is "extinguished" and "atonal," and his writing,
fatally, "no longer resembles anything at all."
譯文
如果能將技巧與智慧運用到某事中去,做到心手相應,精力集中,則就會意志堅定,始終如一。雖有外物干擾,也會無動於心。堯、舜、禹、湯始理天下,養由基苦練射術,庖丁精研宰牛,師曠目盲而治聲律,扁鵲專注於醫術,熊宜僚一心於戲人丸,弈秋潛心於棋,劉伶痴迷於酒,他們都樂此不疲,哪裡還有閒工夫去對別的東西感興趣呢?那些見異思遷的人,是不可能登堂入室,嚐到美味佳餚的。過去張旭善寫草書,不涉其他技藝。喜怒、窘困、憂悲、愉悅、怨恨、思慕、酣醉、無聊、不平,每有心動,必以草書抒發出來。看到山水崖谷、鳥獸蟲魚、草木花果、日月星辰、風雨雷電、歌舞戰斗等等,天地間的萬千變化,或喜或驚,都以草書來表現其情感。所以張旭的書法,神出鬼沒,變幻莫測,因此享譽後世。
如今高閒於草書,有意學張旭。然而僅學其形,未得到精神,所以不算學到了張旭草書的真東西。學習張旭要有法,利害要分明,不要粗枝大葉,情感要發於內心,大膽釋放,有取有捨,然後揮毫而書,才可近乎張旭。

現在高閒師從佛門,明生死之理,超然物外,因而心態寂靜,處世淡然。恬靜與閒適相結合,則頹廢委靡潰敗不可收拾,其表現於書法,必將了無生氣。我曾聽說佛家善於應變,多有技能,高閒若能精通於此,那麼他的成就就是我無法預測的了。

朝代:宋代
原文:
上人學苦空,百念已灰冷。
劍頭唯一吷,焦谷無新穎。
胡爲逐吾輩,文字爭蔚炳?
新詩如玉屑,出語便清警。
退之論草書,萬事未嘗屏。
憂愁不平氣,一寓筆所騁。
頗怪浮屠人,視身如丘井。
頹然寄淡泊,誰與發豪猛?
細思乃不然,真巧非幻影。
欲令詩語妙,無厭空且靜。
靜故了羣動,空故納萬境

閱世走人間,觀身臥雲嶺。
成酸雜衆好,中有至味永。
詩法不相妨,此語當更請。
You have studied suffering and emptiness,
The myriad thoughts, in you, are as cold ashes...
Looking at things more closely, it is not like this
If you want to perfect your poetic expression,
Do not reject encounters with calm and emptiness:
For calm brings the various movements to completion;
And emptiness embraces all possible worlds.
蘇軾不認為韓愈說的對
-------------
Dong Yuan knows how to be plain and bland, natural and authentic [pingdan tianzhen], to the utmost degree. No one under the Tang could compare...[In his landscapes] mountain peaks appeared and disappeared;
clouds and fog were illuminated or darkened. He drew upon no artifice but was spontaneously spurred to natural and true expression. The mist's color is of a deep blue; trunks and branches rise up, vigorous and straight. Everything here breathes life.
米芾 畫史
董源,平淡天真多。 唐無此品,在畢宏上。 近世神品格高,無與比也。 峰巒出沒,雲霧顯晦,不裝巧趣,皆得天真。 嵐色鬱蒼,枝榦勁挺,咸有生意。 溪橋漁浦,洲渚掩映,一片江南也。
趙孟頫 松雪畫論
一、作畫貴有古意
作畫貴有古意,若無古意,雖工無益。今人但知用筆纖細傅色濃艷,便自為能手。殊不知古意既,百病橫生,豈可觀也。吾所作畫,似乎簡率,然識者知其近古,故以為佳。此可為知者道,不為不知者說也。 (引自《清河書畫舫》)
宋人畫人物不及唐人遠甚。予刻意學唐人,殆欲盡去宋人筆墨。 (引自《鐵網珊瑚》)
The praise of pictorial blandness invokes the same arguments;
its simplicity reminds us of that of the ancients who were opposed
to the aesthetic of brightness and seduction, of the sensational and
facile, to which so many of their contemporaries had succumbed.
二、書畫本來同
石如飛白朮如籀,寫竹還應八法通。若也有人能會此,須知書畫本來同。

三、繪畫與自然
桑苧未成鴻漸隱,丹青聊作虎頭痴。久知圖畫非兒戲,到處雲山是我師。 (《松雪齋文集》卷五)余嘗見盧楞伽羅漢像,最得西域人情態,故優人聖域。蓋唐時京師多有西域人,耳目相接、語言相通故也。至五代王齊翰輩.雖善畫,要與漢僧何異?餘仕京師久,頗嘗與天竺僧遊,故於羅漢像自謂有得。此卷餘十七年前作,粗有古意,未知觀者以為何如也。 (自題《紅衣羅漢圖》)

吾自少好畫水仙,日數十紙,皆不能臻其極。蓋業有專工,而吾意所寓,輒欲寫其似。若水仙、樹石以至人物、牛馬、蟲魚、肖翹之類,欲盡得其妙,豈可得哉!
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from the viewpoint of the art enthusiast, the ability to appreciate a painting also depends on a process of transformation (in which one may or may not engage: which is why the most beautiful painting — the one that demands the most of the viewer — is ever at risk of not being appreciated). "At first glance, it is plain and bland," but "the longer one looks at it, the more apparent its spiritual dimension [chu guan pingdan, jiu shi shen ming]!' In contrast, "what first appears beautiful loses its fascination as soon as one looks away from it." The richness of the bland lies in its capacity to offer us an opportunity to transform our gaze into consciousness and to go endlessly deeper. Rather than providing immediate gratification of our most superficial tastes, a bland painting beckons our inner being to immerse itself in it ever further. And so painting and consciousness evolve together in harmony.
畫有初觀平淡,久視神明者,為上乘。有過入眼似佳,轉視無意者。吳生觀僧僧畫,諦視之再,乃三宿不去。
讀老杜入峽諸詩,奇思百出,便是吳生,王宰蜀中山水圖。自來題畫詩,亦惟此老使筆如畫。人謂摩詰詩中有畫,未免一丘一 壑耳。
東坡曰:“看畫以形似,見與兒童鄰”。晁以道云:“畫寫物外形,要於形不改。
歐陽子曰:蕭條淡泊,此難畫之意。畫者得之,覽者未必識也。故飛走遲速,意淺之物易見,而閒和嚴靜之趣 形僕謂取法於繩墨者,人無不見其工拙。寄望於毫素者,非高懷絕識,不能得其妙。--“山靜居畫論”(清)方薰撰

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