Saturday, September 12, 2015

與古齋琴譜

https://archive.org/details/02095087.cn

https://archive.org/details/02095088.cn

https://archive.org/details/02095089.cn

https://archive.org/details/02095090.cn

https://archive.org/details/02095091.cn



故所謂 宮商角徵羽 乃五聲諧音 本音 其它為變音 
而五聲之本來自於三分損益律

Du hua zhai cong shu, Volume 7 讀畫齋叢書 洞天清祿集

理疏而堅

桐木不宜太鬆 桐木太鬆而理疏 琴聲多泛而虛
宜擇緊實而紋理條條如絲線 密條達不邪曲者 此十分良才
亦掐不入者為奇
掐得入者粗疎柔脆多是花桐...
桐木年久木液去盡紫色透裡全無白色更加細密萬金良材
------------------------
陽材旦濁而暮清 晴濁而雨清
陰材反之 造化使然
若木內之汁液未去盡 其音必濁滯而不清亮

因讀到去液之法: ”將琴木置於祇料池中...凡做紙必以竹浸石灰池中...“ 才瞭解到有關竹紙
中国竹纸起源于晋代,唐宋时期竹纸业大力发展,明代竹纸业发展兴盛,清代竹纸业达到了鼎盛发展,竹纸生产达到空前程度,中国南方省区均有竹纸的生产制造。近现代竹纸业仍持续旺盛不衰。)竹纸生产过程分为四大步骤:用水漂浸使竹纤维初步分解;石灰煮竹丝制成纸浆;竹帘抄纸;焙烘竹纸。② 用石灰和天然碱蒸煮纸浆,就是今天所使用的化学处理法,进行三级制浆。③ 竹纸的生产工序主要有选竹、砍竹、剖竹、浸竹、煮浆、漂洗以及碱淋、发酵、臼舂、入槽、水浸、药析、抄纸、压板和焙干等,每一工序都有一定的技术要求。)
http://chuanyouguan.blog.163.com/blog/static/46192711200961493120161


room temp 65 humidity 45 is a good setting for north west and north of north america according to Joe.

avoid wolf tone.

中国古代长度

  • 夏 1 = 8(1尺=24.63厘米
  • 商 1尺 = 10寸,1寸 = 10分(1尺= 31.1厘米——大尺;15.8厘米——小尺)
  • 周 1丈=10尺, 1尺=10寸, 1寸=10分(前期:1尺=19.7厘米;后期:1尺=24.63厘米)
  • 秦 1引=10丈, 1丈=10尺, 1尺=10寸, 1寸=10分(1尺=23.1厘米)
  • 汉 1引=10丈, 1丈=10尺, 1尺=10寸, 1寸=10分(1尺=27.7厘米)
  • 新莽;后汉 1引=10丈, 1丈=10尺, 1尺=10寸, 1寸=10分(1尺=23厘米)
  • 三国 1丈=10尺, 1尺=10寸, 1寸=10分(1尺=24.1厘米)
  • 西晋 1丈=10尺, 1尺=10寸, 1寸=10分(1尺=23厘米)
  • 东晋 1丈=10尺, 1尺=10寸, 1寸=10分(1尺=24.5厘米)
  • 十六国 1丈=10尺, 1尺=10寸, 1寸=10分(1尺=24.5厘米)
  • 南北朝 1丈=10尺, 1尺=10寸, 1寸=10分(1尺=24.5厘米;1尺=29.6厘米)
  • 隋 1丈=10尺, 1尺=10寸, 1寸=10分(前期:1尺=29.6厘米;后期:1尺=23.5厘米)
  • 唐; 五代 1丈=10尺, 1尺=10寸, 1寸=10分(小尺:1尺=31.1厘米;大尺:1尺=36厘米)
  • 宋 1丈=10尺, 1尺=10寸, 1寸=10分(1尺=30.7厘米)
  • 元 1丈=10尺, 1尺=10寸, 1寸=10分(1尺=30.7厘米)
  • 明 1丈=10尺, 1尺=10寸, 1寸=10分(裁衣尺:1尺=34厘米;量地尺:1尺=32.7厘米;营造尺:1尺=31.1厘米)
  • 清 1丈=10尺, 1尺=10寸, 1寸=10分(裁衣尺:1尺=35.5厘米;量地尺:1尺=34.5厘米;营造尺:1尺=32厘米)
  • 现代 1丈=10尺, 1尺=10寸, 1寸=10分(1尺=33.33厘米)  --維基百科



取材長三尺九吋厚九分闊六吋
(124.8 cm長 x 2.88cm厚 x 19.2cm寬 -- 清
121.29 cm x 2.79cm x 18.66cm -- 明 )

岳內至尾三尺六寸為全絃長度 (115.2cm 清 or 111.96 cm 明 )
My 裴qin is very close to the Ming measurement.
有效絃長112cm, the widest 闊 part is 18.8 cm, but the thickest part it 3.6cm

齦口左右各量五分五釐共一寸一分與承露左右各量兩寸共四寸
兩邊各連為長斜直線 此乃一七絃位界線也

岳山內際循中主線直量九寸乃四徽界位
又量九寸乃七徽界位
再量九寸乃十徽界位
又量四寸五分乃十三徽界位...

天圓地方天地柱
內徑皆三分 (0.933cm)
天柱豎於三四徽間
地柱豎於七八徽間

一絃外 首尾各離兩分 彈一直線為安徽之中線位
再拿一張寬約五分 長為岳至齦的紙
對四絃 將13徽位橫線畫出

濾好的生漆置於盤中
給日曬一下
用竹片翻攪至盤底色白
有水氣時要時時曬攪
曬是為了去水氣
攪是為了不讓表面乾掉
數日以後漆中水氣曬盡而顏色發亮
入豬膽可讓漆呈現清晰俐落不凝滯
好像寫書法的墨一樣
可拿毛筆沾之寫字一樣的清利
再加鐵鏽水及一點光漆拌勻
會呈灰色但塗在木上等乾後會很黑很黑
讓漆變亮也可以用煮的
但要時時看著 時時攪動 一煮熟就離火搧涼 不要讓底部焦掉
再上火煮 再離火反覆多次
會比用曬得還要發亮

1/24/2016
岳高 而半低於平
齦低 而微高乎面
.....
初製九分, 崁入琴面三分露出琴面六分, 修妥只露五分


岳山之厚只宜三分







Friday, September 11, 2015

琴上的三分損益律與十二平均律 The 2/3, 4/3 ratios Vs. 12 Equal Tempraments on the qin

朱載堉的十二平均律算學理論
其[律呂精義內篇]卷一中提到:度本起於黃鐘之長, 則黃鐘之長即度法一尺, 命平方一尺為黃鐘之率, 東西十寸為句, 自乘得百寸為句幂, 南北十寸為股自乘得百寸為幂, 相併共得二百為弦幂, 乃置幂為實, 開平方法除之得弦一尺四寸一分四厘二毫一絲三忽五微六纖二三七三0九五0四八八0一六八九,為方之斜,即圓之徑,亦即蕤賓倍律之率;以句十寸乘之,得平方積一百四十一寸四十二分一十三厘五十六毫二十三絲七十三忽0九五o四八八0一六八九,為實,開平方法除之,得一尺一寸八分九釐二毫0七忽一微一纖五00二七二一0六六七一七五,即南呂倍律之率;仍以句十寸乘之,又以股十寸乘之,得立方積一千一百八十九寸二百0七分一百一十五厘00二毫七百二十一絲0六十六忽七一七五,為實,開立方法除之,得一尺0五分九釐四毫六絲三忽0九纖四三五九二九五二六四五六一八二五,即應鐘倍律之率. 蓋十二律黃鐘為始, 應鐘為終. 終而復始, 循環無端... 是故各律, 皆以黃鐘正數十寸乘之為, 皆以應鐘倍數...為, 除之即得其次律也...



上圖取自陳萬鼐[朱載堉研究]page 55 加上了自己的註明


以113cm 的弦長, 用朱載堉的"新法"算出十二個音在琴上的位置
C  - open string
C# - 1/2 徽外到龍齦 (1/2 hui wai to long ying)
D - 13 徽外1.8cm 處 (hui wai 1.8cm)
D# - 12.2 徽
E - 10.8 徽
F - 10 徽
F# - 9 徽半 (9.5 hui)
G - 9 徽
G# - 8.4 徽
A - 7.9 徽
A# - 7.8 徽
B - 7.3 



上圖取自陳萬鼐[朱載堉研究]page 41, 42 的三分損益律產生法, 並加上了自己的註明



以113cm 的弦長, 用三分損益律算出十二個音在琴上的位置

C  - open string
C# (+20 cent) - 6.6 徽
D - 13 徽外1.5 cm 處 (hui wai 1.5 cm)(100.67cm ET平均律 vs.100.44cm, the 2/3 ratio三分損益律)
D#  (+50 cent) - 6.2 徽
E - 10.8 徽 (89.69cm vs. 89.28cm)
F ( + 50 cent) - 5.5 徽
F# (+ 30 cent) - 9 徽半偏右 (9.45 hui)
G - 9 徽 (75.42 vs. 75.33)
G# (+20 cent) - 8.4 徽
A - 7.9 徽 (67.2cm vs. 66.9cm) 
A# (Bb +25 -50 cent) - 7.5 徽
B - 7.3 徽偏右 (7.2 - 7.3 hui) (59.86cm vs. 59.52cm) 
C2 (-50 cent) - 7 上 (6.9 hui) 無法還原

上圖取自袁中平[琴學講義] Page 123
三分損益律音頻差

黃鐘、太簇、姑洗、蕤賓、夷則、無射為六陽律(六律) Six Yang Lu
大呂、夾鍾、中呂、林鍾、南呂、應鐘為六陰律(六呂) Six Yin Lu

下圖from wiki
古音十二律
12 
史記文字
三分損益
史記數字
西方音名
Western Name
十二平均律
三分損益與十二平均律偏差(%)
黃鐘HuángZhōng 八寸七分一8181(更正後)C81-
林鐘
Lín Zhōng
五寸十分四5454G54.06100.11
太簇
Tài Cù
七寸十分二7272D72.16280.23
南呂
Nán Lǚ
四寸十分八4848A48.16290.34
姑洗
Gū Xiǎn
六寸十分四6464E64.28980.45
應鐘
Yìng Zhōng
四寸二分三分二42.666742.6667B42.90830.56
蕤賓
Ruí Bīn
五寸六分三分二56.888956.6667F♯57.27570.68
大呂
Dà Lǚ
七寸五分三分二75.851975.6667C♯76.45380.79
夷則
Yí Zé
五寸三分二50.567950.6667G♯51.02680.90
夾鐘
Jiá Zhōng
六寸七分三分一67.423967.3333D♯68.11261.01
無射
Wú Yì
四寸四分三分二44.949244.6667A♯45.45971.12
仲呂
Zhòng Lǚ
五寸九分三分二59.932359.6667F60.68141.23

十二律名由來

黃鐘C(HuángZhōng ): 漢 班固 《白虎通·五行》:《月令》云,十一月律謂之黃鐘何?中和之色;鐘者,動也。言陽氣動於黃泉之下,動養萬物也。"Huang" came from "Huang Quan" which means the spring water under ground. "Zhong" means moving, active. Huang Zhong: the Yang energy moving under ground, which relates to the season of the 11th month in Chinese calendar.

大呂C#(Dà Lǚ): 《白虎通·五行》:十二月律之謂之大呂何?大,大也;呂者,拒也。言陽氣欲出,陰不許也。呂之為言拒者,旅抑拒難之也。"Da" means big. "Lu" means resistance. "Da Lu" means a heavy resistance of the ying energy because the yang energy is coming out. This is related to the 12th month in Chinese calendar.

太簇D(Tài Cù): 取萬物簇生之意。乃六陽律之第二律。《白虎通·五行》:正月律謂之太蔟?太,亦大也;蔟者,湊也。言萬物始大,湊地而出也。"Tai" also means big. "Cu" means together. "Tai Cu" means all the life starting to grow together. This is related to the 1st month in Chinese calendar.

夾鐘D#(Jiá Zhōng): 《白虎通·五行》: 二月律謂之夾鐘何?夾者,孚甲也,言萬物孚甲,種類分也。孚甲指草木種子分裂發芽。引申為萌發,萌生。孚,通“ 莩 ”,葉里白皮。甲,草木初生時所帶種子的皮殼。"Jia" means the husk of a seed when plants starting to grow. "Jia Zhong" means when all the plants start to grown, there are seeds covering with dry skin. This is related to the 2nd month in Chinese calendar.

姑洗E(Gū Xiǎn): 六陽律之第三律。《白虎通·五行》:「三月謂之姑洗何?姑者故也,洗者鮮也,言萬物皆去故就其新,莫不鮮明也。」 "Gu" means old. "Xian" means fresh. "Gu Xian" means everything get rid of old and become new. This is related to the 3rd month in Chinese calendar.
 
仲呂F(Zhòng Lǚ):《白虎通·五行》 四月謂之仲呂何?言陽氣極將,彼故復中難之也。 高誘 注:“仲呂,四月也。陽在外,陰在中,所以呂中於陽助成功也,故曰仲呂。"Zhong" means middle or inside. "Zhong Lu" means yang is at outside and ying is at inside. This is related to the 4th month in Chinese calendar. "Zhong Lu" can also means the middle bell. If "Da Lu" is the big resistance of the Ying energy, Zhong Lu should be the smaller resistance of the Ying energy, which means the Yang energy is coming out more.

蕤賓F#(Ruí Bīn): 律以統氣類物……四曰蕤賓……位於午,在五月。為六陽律的第四律。蕤:草木的花下垂的样子。《白虎通·五行》五月謂之蕤賓,蕤者,下也;賓者,敬也。言陽氣上極,陰氣始,賓敬之也。"Rui" means flowers drooping. "Bin" means respects. "Rui Bin" means the yang energy is at the peak and the ying energy starts to grow,  respecting the ying energy. This is related to the 5th month in Chinese calendar.

林鐘G (Lín Zhōng): 《白虎通·五行》六月謂之林鍾何?林者,眾也,萬物成熟,種類眾多。"Lin" means numerous, many kinds, all kinds of thing become mature. "Zhong" means moving, active, or the bell. "Lin Zhong" is related to the 6th month in Chinese calendar.

夷則G# (Yí Zé):《白虎通·五行》七月謂之夷則何?夷,傷也;則,法也。言萬物始傷,被刑法也。"Yi" means becoming harmful. "Ze" means rules, laws. "Yi Ze" means everything starting to be hinder by natural phenomena. This is related to the 7 month in Chinese calendar.

南呂A (Nán Lǚ): 八月謂之南呂何?南者,任也,言陽氣尚有,任生薺麥也,故陰拒之也。"Nan" means rely on or let alone. In the 8th month of Chinese calendar, yang energy is getting less and less, therefore farmers growing water-chestnuts; caltrop and wheat these kind of crop. "Nan Lu" is related to the 8th month in Chinese calendar. "Nan Lu" also has the meaning of that the Ying energy resist the Yang energy. There is more Ying than Yang.

無射A# (Wú Yì): 九月謂之無射何?射者,終也。言萬物隨陽而終,當複隨陰而起,無有終已也。"Wu" means without. "Yi" means ending. "Wu Yi" means everything goes to its end when yang energy is finished but will start growing with the yin energy. Therefore life is no ending. This is related to the 9th month in Chinese calendar.

應鐘B (Yìng Zhōng): 十月謂之應鐘何?應者,應也;鐘者,動也。言萬物應陽而動下藏也。"Ying" means comply with, responding. In the 10th month of a year in Chinese calendar, everything will start to comply with the hidden yang energy.









Tuesday, September 8, 2015

Finger Technique - Juan 蠲

The Guqin right hand has a finger technique called "Juan" 蠲 or 涓. If playing an ancient qin melody closer to Ming dynasty or earlier, I'd like to check the fingering records around Ming or earlier than Ming dynasty. For this finger technique, I found that before Song dynasty, such as Tang dynasty, it is very different from Song and after Song dynasty. In Tang dynasty, there are explanations more similar to Quanfu 全伏 or Fanlun 反輪 techniques.  I'd like to take this Song dynasty explanation to be the way of playing this technique.  



Picture crop from ZFX Guqin Zhifa Jilan 查阜西[現存古琴指法輯覽]

宋成玉礀(北宋徽宗政和間1111-1114 指法見琴書大全):
抹勾連 謂之蠲, 須兩聲相續, 勢如天馬攢蹄.
一說假如蠲三 謂以食中二指連續抹勾三絃, 不成一聲, 却急縮起食指 令中指著四絃上, 盖食指先發欲輕 次之以中指欲重, 其主意在中指 以食引而發之. (減字作....)

Cheng Yujian (Northern Song, Emperor Huizong period, born around 1111-1114, the technique can be seen in the book "Qin Shu Da Quan" ) 
Doing Muo Gou continuously, called Juan. It creates two sounds and has to be continuous. The two-finger gesture will be like the two front legs of a running horse.
For example, "蠲三" Juan 3rd string, which is using right index and middle fingers plucking in the 3rd string quickly. While it is still in one beat, quickly draw in the index finger and let the middle finger rest on the 4th string after plucking. The strength of plucking is light first of the index finger, and heavier later of the middle finger. The major concept is to focus on the middle finger, but the index finger is to lead to the action. 

Found a nice video of horses running:



And please also see the video of my demo of Juan (or Dié Juan):