Monday, November 10, 2014

成公亮说吟猱 Yín and Náo are existing at all times and in all places

Master Chen Gongliang talks about Yín and Náo
(The English translation is my understanding of the Chinese part written by Master Chen. Sorry for my poor English. Please correct me if you see any inappropriate translation. Thanks. )

    吟猱是一种自然的律动,它是某种气息,是琴乐语气表达的组成部分,在琴乐中以自己独有的方式非常自然地存在着。它随时随地存在着,在稍长一点的音符中会明白显示,象是弹琴过程中始终存在的脉搏,在弹奏动作的外形上来看,手指不时在动,无论谱上是否记录相应的吟猱谱字,其动作幅度或大而明显,有时也小而不觉。
Yín and Náo (two kinds of Vibrato) are natural rhythm movement. They are like some kind of breathing pulsation, and are parts of the musical language composition of the guqin. They are existing naturally on their own, at all times and in all places, in a qin music. They are more obvious at a note with longer duration.  If one observes a qin player's appearance of playing, one will see the player vibrating his or her fingers from time to time. The range of those vibrato motions can be big and obvious, or subtle and almost not showing, no matter if the tablature has indication of the Yín and Náo or not.

    琴乐大体用两种节拍状态存在着:“散板”和“入拍”,但千变万化的琴乐的节拍节奏又常有这样的情况:在“散板”中似有似无地存在着“入拍”感觉的片断;在“入拍”中似有似无地存在着“散板”感觉的片断 —— 一种非常微妙的交叉。无论“散板”和“入拍”,吟猱都在它们的音乐过程中存在着,不过它们以不同的脉动方式来适应“散板”和“入拍”,后者比前者更具规律和均衡感。
The beats situation of the Qin music in general, are “Sǎn bǎn” (Rubato) and  “Rù pāi” (entering the beats). However, there is a correlation of “Sǎn bǎn” and  “Rù pāi” in the variable rhythm and beats of the qin music. In “Sǎn bǎn”, there could have some subtlety of “Rù pāi” existed, vice versa. And yet, Yín and Náo are existed in the musical process, both in “Sǎn bǎn” and “Rù pāi,” by adjusting the different ways of pulsing.  “Rù pāi” has more regular pattern of beats and is more balanced in rhythm than  “Sǎn bǎn.”

    在琴谱中有这么一个符号“不动”。“不动”有两个用法,一是手指所按音位弹后不要移动,等待下一个谱字时还要用;另一个含义是指“死”在那里。如果琴谱中的吟猱是反映左手的揉弦动作,那么在没有记录吟猱的地方就应该是不动的,为何古人还多此一举地另外创造一个符号?这说明古琴的吟猱在弹奏中是普遍存在的。通常情况下,谱上所标出的是琴家认为最重要和必不可少的,但并不是说未标出的地方都应“死”在那里“不动”。
There is one finger technique of the qin, called "Bù dòng" (without moving). Usually means that the indicated finger stays there without moving until the next note had been played, then using that stable finger again to play the following note. Or it can just simply means "don't move." If Yín and Náo are reflecting the left hand vibrato movements, places where no indication of Yín and Náo should mean no vibrato movement. Why did ancient people not using a "Bù dòng" notation to indicate that there is no vibrato? But only indicate Yín and Náo at certain places? That is because ancient qin masters think that to indicate Yín and Náo at important places to show it is very important and indispensable, otherwise, it is always there. So no indication of Yín and Náo does not mean by "Bù dòng."

    另一个情况是绰注。在实际弹奏中,几乎所有的琴家弹奏实际中使用的绰注比谱中所标记的多――吟猱是这样,绰注也是这样。我们分析绰注弹奏动作形态时,我们可以发现绰注来自吟猱,也可以说吟猱来自绰注,两者的动作似乎有一种相同的起点、过程,原来吟猱绰注都是左手手指对弹出的音作种种不同的装饰,作许多不同的“韵变化”,琴乐中奇妙多样的“韵变化”成就了古琴极其丰富的表现力,成就了古琴极其深刻的精神内涵甚至它的神秘色彩。

Another two finger techniques, Chuò and Zhù (sliding down and sliding up) has the same situation of not indicated on every note but only on important and indispensable notes.  Chuò, Zhù and Yín, Náo are correlated. Sometimes, Chuò or Zhù happened after Yín or Náo; sometimes Yín or Náo happened after Chuò or Zhù.    One will notice that almost all the qin masters used more Chuò and Zhù than what the qin tablature had indicated. Because Chuò, Zhù, Yín and Náo, are the techniques to create variety of the rhythm and sound color of the qin, it achieves the qin music to a very rich, deep and mystery level.