Thursday, July 24, 2014

有關 [流水]


For qin friends who are interested in the study of [Flowing Water]... This picture is showing a paragraph from Mr. 查阜西's research of [張孔山流水] 傳本考異 in June 9, 1957.

"諸譜亦間有之, 但只載首尾, 中缺滾拂. ... 非古人之不傳滾彿也, 時滾彿一段, 可以意會, 不可言傳." -- the "72 gun fu" part was omitted out from many qin tablature, not because ancient masters didn't teach this part, it is so difficult that can only be sensed but not explained.

Until Taoist priest Zhang Kong-shan (who was teaching qin at Si-chuan Provence between 1851-1894) and his pupils started to try to write down the techniques of this missing part. 

Zhang did not invent the "72 gun fu" but learned from his teacher, 馮彤雲 Feng Tong-yun. According to Zha Fu-xi, Feng did not create the "72 gun fu" either. It should be already existed since then, and since it is so complicated that can only be taught by oral explanation and physical demonstration.

The foot note for #1 is : 見張孔山傳[百瓶齋流水譜]抄本和楊時百[琴學叢書] 刻本.

Wednesday, July 9, 2014

[烏夜啼] 璅=瑣=鎖, 實吟,臨

瑣  =>ㄑㄑㄑ
挑抹挑連作共三聲

小瑣也是共三聲但較緊(稍急之意)
有說"剔抹挑", 也有說"抹挑抹"
而事實上我覺得"抹勾剔"更順彈

小瑣=背瑣(北瑣 比較慢)
差別在緩急
"緩曰北 急曰小" 清朝孫洤(康熙31年1692)說的
剔抹要急 其挑少一息 雖同背鎖取音有緊慢也

大瑣=長瑣
有說九聲也有說七聲
七聲的話我按吳門抹挑抹勾踢抹挑
九聲的話七聲前再加個抹挑省

短瑣則為五聲
抹挑 省 剔抹挑

實吟的"實"記法如"毋" = 左名指按絃得聲後微微滑動

臨 = 臣
神奇秘譜的烏夜啼有"三作臣了用吟"
此"臨"當做"靠近"解
我的解法為第三作加個吟

要說開始打譜烏夜啼要從7/5看到明宜的錄影被受感動而開始打
打譜真的很有意思
讓我覺得活的有意義
打的是神奇秘譜的烏夜啼
今天7/11 過到第三段了
但彈的不順暢
要彈的順暢我給自己半年

古琴有"正音"有"奇音"
溪山二十四琴況的最後一況"速"便把正音與奇音明白的說出了
[陽春][佩蘭]其音中正平和, 是為正音,
平和中有忽然變急是最精妙之音者, 如[烏夜啼]
所謂正音備而奇音不可偏廢, 此之為速...

我正在體驗奇音之忽急忽緩如何掌握
烏夜啼太有意思了

8/2/2014
背瑣(據明代的說法有說三聲也有說四聲)最後決定彈四聲的
以區別三聲的瑣


打圓決定彈六聲(跟據唐到宋到元到明部份時期都說是做六聲)

8/26/2014
從[烏夜啼], 到"楚聲"...

讀許健的<<評[神奇秘譜]>>中提到[烏夜啼]是傳自南北朝西曲民歌
困惑什麼是西曲, 便一連串找到一些資料

(吳哥西曲)是南北朝的民歌, 是指保存於[樂府詩集 清商曲辭]中的南朝民歌.被貴族采入樂府.
"吳歌"以建業(南京)為中心, "西曲" 以湖北江陵為中心, 在荊, 樊, 鄧, 之間. 即現今湖北中西部向西涉及湖南四川貴州一帶的民歌與舞蹈, 反映城市生活,以情歌為主, 語言清新自然. 
南朝民歌與北朝民歌有著委婉細膩與直率粗獷的不同風味

"江南吳歌" "荊楚西聲" 這個"荊楚西聲"(楚國又稱荊)應當指的就是西曲, 是否也應當指的就是楚聲.
想中國在南北朝的疆圖來看, 荊乃屬當時"吳"的西方, 或許是以吳的角度而稱為西聲.


《唐书.礼乐志》说:“周隋管弦杂曲数百,皆西凉乐也,鼓舞曲皆龟兹乐也。惟琴工猶傳楚漢舊聲清调。蔡氏五弄,楚调四弄,谓之九弄。” 就是說琴人所彈的很多都是楚漢舊聲而不是外來音樂聲,如西涼樂,龜兹樂...

吳歌西曲繁榮的原因之一是統治者的提倡: 南史. 張貴妃傳: "(陳)後主每引賓客對貴妃等游宴, 則使諸貴人及女學士與狎客共賦新詩, 互相贈答. 采其尤豔麗者, 以為曲調, 被以新聲, 選宮女有容色者以千百數, 令習而歌之. " 所以說被文人取用並紀錄下來的多是他們覺得特別豔麗的音樂. 

神奇秘譜的烏夜啼一曲運用了很多"鎖" 使同一條弦上短時間內產生快速的連續重覆的音.
這樣的指法運用是古曲"韻少聲多"的特色. 是否也是受到所謂"豔麗"的影響? 

所以古楚聲是否多為豔麗? 取聲多繁複?烏夜啼是否接近古楚聲? 木上絲的喃喃自語...











Tuesday, July 8, 2014

再讀成玉礀的[琴論]

I like to re-read the [Qín Lùn] (Qin Theory) from Chén Yù-jiàn of the Nothern Song dynasty. 余嘗謂琴者, 非十年不可成功. 惟其至精至熟, 乃有新奇聲, 亦須參考諸家 , 擇其善者從之可也. 至于胸中自得, 殆不可以言傳.... 攻琴如參禪, 歲月磨練, 瞥然省悟, 則無所不通. -- 北宋成玉礀

"攻琴如參禪" "Studying the qin as if searching for zen enlightenment." (10 years is not even enough, but less than 10 years is nothing closer to be enlightened... I think.)

"至精至熟, 乃有新奇聲" "extremity well familiar with a piece, then one can find new surprise in the sound" (I start to see that happen to my practicing)


琴無好惡, 在彈者工拙, 不善取聲, 綜曲本佳, 愈覺生硬, 如丑婦珠翠徒自多耳, 善取聲者, 縱曲本不佳, 亦自美聽, 如西施淡妝, 自有不凡氣韻. 若施粉黛, 豈易量哉! 

(吾之理解為:琴之美學著重於清, 簡, 淡, 雅, 有氣韻. 仍強調練功)


大匠無棄材, 信有之矣. 下指要逼岳, 則聲鏗鏘. 至於微細之處, 當四徽之下, 不然, 是琴箏也... 

下指要圓, 如珠走盤, 瑩無留跡, 乃極其妙..坐次偏斜, 調絃無度, 指法輕亂, 曲未終而力先乏, 謂之瞬夢彈, 後人多此類. 
My attempt translation: when playing the qin, the best hand movements are like pearls running in a plate that they are smooth and clear without any trace... sit must be straight, strings are tuned, fingerings cannot be messed up, energy has to be consistent from the beginning to the end. If energy is good from the beginning but weak at the end, that is called a blink of a dream, which is not good.


(吾之理解為: 物無好壞端看如何使用, 以發揮其最佳之造化, 如彈琴也是有分聲之清重, 右手下指靠近岳山聲音較為響亮, 靠近四徽則聲音較為細微, 如果沒有做出這樣的變化, 就好像與彈箏沒什麼差別. 而兩手運指可掌握如珠走盤那樣的圓韻, 光潔透明不留痕跡, 是最妙的功夫. 再就是姿態要正, 絃音要調準, 指法不亂彈, 氣不乏於最終. )

Some old notes about Qin Lun: http://peiyouqin.com/qinlun.html

古琴之正音與奇音

古琴有"正音"有"奇音"
溪山二十四琴況的最後一況"速"便把正音與奇音明白的說出了
[陽春][佩蘭]其音中正平和, 是為正音,
平和中有忽然變急是最精妙之音者, 如[烏夜啼]
所謂正音備而奇音不可偏廢, 此之為速...
The Guqin has zhèng yīn" (main sound) and "qí yīn" (unusual sound)
The last situation of the guqin from [The Twenty-Four Qin Situations] by Xu Qin-shan (1582—1662) is "Su" (speed) which has explanation about the "zhèng yīn" and "qí yīn".
The qin melody "Yáng chūn" (sunny spring), for example, has the zhèng yīn. The melody "Wū yè tí" (the midnight crow) has "qí yīn". Zhèng yīn is graceful and neutral. Qí yīn means the most fine and ingenious sound that is created by variations on speed. Xu Qin-shan's definition of the situation of the qin "speed" is the well combination of zhèng yīn and qí yīn, that neither can be neglected.
本人英文才殊學淺, 若有錯誤之處還請各家不吝指正. Sorry for my limited English, if you see improper translation, please correct me. Thanks.